Water and sanitation are one of the most pressing issues facing people in rural Vietnam. Of particular difficulty for sanitation advocates in Vietnam is the habit of using raw feces to fertilize rice fields, with the result of exposing human excreta to the environment. This leads to water and soil contamination and to widespread disease outbreaks. The UN estimated that, in 2010, only 18% of rural households, 12% of rural schools, and 37% of commune health stations had a hygienic latrine that met Ministry of Health standards, which means the country still has a long way to go to achieving ‘sanitation for all’.
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