Fish community responses to multiple municipal wastewater inputs in a watershed

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Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) is one of the largest anthropogenic waste discharges by volume in Canada and there is concern over the potential impacts it may have on aquatic ecosystems (Environment Canada 2001). The input of organic material and nutrients from MWWEs into the aquatic receiving environment can result in eutrophication and lower dissolved oxygen content (Chambers et al. 1997; Cooke 2006). Municipal wastewater effluents also contain a variety of toxic contaminants such ammonia, chloride, inorganic chloramines (Environment Canada 2001), natural and synthetic hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (Ternes et al. 1999; Servos et al. 2005; Lishman et al. 2006; Metcalfe et al. 2009), and industrial chemicals such as alkyphenol polyethoxylates (Servos et al. 1999). Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2012 SETAC

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