In contrast with other industries, the composition of the water and wastewater workforce has not been extensively quantified. No single agency surveys jobs for both public and private utilities, and information is scattered among numerous government and industry data sets. In this study, data from several surveys and other sources were used to estimate total water and wastewater employment at 250,000 and 175,000, respectively. Data on jobs by occupations indicated that approximately 38% of this workforce falls into administrative and management categories and about 30% are in production occupations, three fourths of these as operators. Information on other technical occupations is presented, and recommendations are made for policy changes in occupational statistics and training for utility employees. The water and wastewater workforce is large and significant on a national basis. A better understanding of its composition will help determine appropriate policy-making and workforce investment and assist utility management and certification agencies in developing training and improvement programs.
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