In order to establish the calculation formulas for the emissions, a series of real-time on-line measurements at the stack(s) are being performed for the widest possible operating envelop. Emission influencing parameters are being measured by the DCS and KEMA witnesses and verifies the tests and values. From these series of measurements a PEMS formula is established, which is to be used for the continuous monitoring of the emissions.
In order to guarantee the quality of the PEMS on the longer term a system for regular audit measurements is needed. In Europe this is on a yearly basis. The US accept PEMS as a monitoring tool instead of CEMS. In Europe PEMS is more and more accepted for monitoring NOx emissions.
KEMA has a long experience in establishing PEMS for power plants, chemical and paper industry and refineries. KEMA has also made substantial contributions to the systematic for the quality control for PEMS in the Netherlands. Recently, KEMA has performed a test for a quality control calculation tool for CEMS and PEMS for the Dutch Emission Authority. KEMA wrote numerous PEMS reports being the leading authority in this field of expertise.