Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Articles

  • The environment: the road ahead

    Based on a paper given at the Environment North Seas Conference in Stavanger, August 1991, this paper examines the future for the environment. It begins by examining progress to date, e.g. control of chlorofluorocarbons, Sustainable Development is identified as the basis for the future, and must be turned from theory to practice. Through a mix of regulation and market led factors, industry will ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Technical implications of the 1987 Montreal Protocol for developing countries

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol, which came into force in 1989 and was subsequently strengthened by the 1990 and 1992 amendments, has profound implications for both developed and developing countries. The implications for developed countries have understandably received and continue to receive considerable attention. However, the implications for technology, industry, training and development, and the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • F gas regulations aim to improve climate and reduce global warming

    Fluorinated greenhouses gases, also known as F Gas, are being closely regulated by the United States and many other foreign countries because they can cause harmful climate change. The U.S., Canada and member countries of the European Union have imposed regulations aimed at containing or phasing out certain substances that increase global warming. F Gas is commonly found in stationary ...


    By Verisae

  • Scientists call manmade chemicals like refrigerant gases a cause of climate change

    A major cause of climate change is the harm that is done to the Earth by man-made chemicals. Whilst chemicals, such as those used to produce day by day items, operate equipment and generally make life easier, are necessary, they present a threat to the environment. Governments around the world have set new regulations to limit the use of substances that contribute to global warming and deplete ...


    By Verisae

  • Manmade chemicals a major cause of global climate change

    Although the Earth?s climate evolves naturally over time, the major cause of climate change that is harmful and lead to unfavorable weather, water patterns, growth patterns are due to the release of manmade chemicals. While these chemicals are necessary to produce certain items, operate essential refrigeration equipment, or make our daily lives easier, they are a danger to the environment and the ...


    By Verisae

  • Global Warming Potential (GWP) significance of HCFC refrigerant gases

    The global warming potential of chemicals is well documented. This is usually documented by referencing how much a chemical will impact global warming as compared to a similar amount of carbon dioxide. Refrigerants typically outrank carbon dioxide by a factor of 100 or even 1000 and stay in the atmosphere longer to our climate's detriment. All greenhouse gases are allocated a global warming ...


    By Verisae

  • R 22 refrigerant gas is on the way out and nearing end of phase out period

    R 22 refrigerant gas, widely used in numerous industrial applications, is being phased out. As the government mandated phase out continues, those facilities that have equipment using this chemical are rushing to impose measures that enable them to meet the requirements of the law. Numerous substances are suspected of causing great harm to our climate, the depletion of the ozone layer and ...


    By Verisae

  • How organizations can comply with the HCFC phase out

    The HCFC phase out, of specifically R-22 refrigerant gas, is intended to decrease and eventually eliminate the production and use of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The government directive impacts facilities in developed countries that fall under the Montreal Protocol or the U.S. Clean Air Act. A schedule has been developed for entities that use commercial refrigeration, air-conditioning ...


    By Verisae

  • R22 Refrigerant gas phase out: Is your organization ready for enhance tracking and exploding costs?

    Several years ago, the United States and other countries passed federal laws that mandate commercial facilities to phase out usage of R22 refrigerant and convert to a more environmentally friendly alternative (i.e. SNAP refrigerant alternatives).Many organizations are working on conversion efforts for the 2015 phase out deadline. Other organizations are putting into practice various measures to ...


    By Verisae

  • Ozone depleting substances (ODS) and The Montreal Protocol

    The Montreal Protocol, officially called the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, is an international treaty created to reduce the damage being caused to the stratospheric ozone layer by air pollutants such as refrigerant gases. The ozone layer protects the earth from damaging UV-B radiation, which could lead to increased cases of skin cancer, damaged crops and marine ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant compliance includes calculating carbon emissions

    If you manage a facility using a refrigeration and air-conditioning (RAC) system or heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC-R) system, it’s time to comply with federal and state environmental laws regarding carbon emissions. To help reduce greenhouse gases, the law requires calculating carbon emissions. This means monitoring, collecting data and performing extensive reporting of CO2 ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant Gas Tracking: The importance of AC/HVAC system maintenance

    Refrigerant gases are used in commercial facilities such as office buildings, hospitals and warehouses to maintain the climate and air quality. Refrigerant management includes maintaining the air conditioning (AC) or heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) units often used to maintain the environment in these buildings.Refrigerant gases have been around for many years. These gases are ...


    By Verisae

  • Refrigerant Gases (R-22 HCFCs): Understanding the laws regulating them

    The US Clean Air Act is a congressional law that explains the EPA's task in protecting air quality and the ozone layer. This Act is maintained by the House of Representatives. Major amendments were passed in 1990 and several other changes were made after that with still more pending related to mandatory reporting of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.Refrigerant gases are those used in climate ...


    By Verisae

  • How to decifer government laws for refrigerant gases (R-22 HCFCs)

    Refrigerant Gas Regulations for R-22 HCFCs: How the Government Mandates Monitoring and TrackingThe U.S. Clean Air Act is a regulation that spells out the EPA's role in air quality, especially in protecting the ozone layer and the tracking and reporting of Greenhouse Gases. The Act is maintained by the House of Representatives. The Clean Air Act has had changes made in the 1990s and again in 2008 ...


    By Verisae

  • Campbell`s Soup Company`s Napoleon facility increases accuracy and reduces inspection times with ESS

    Campbell's Soup Company, one of the largest soup producers in the world, has been a leader in protecting the environment for years. Households around the world have depended on Campbell's to deliver high quality, great tasting soup and to serve as responsible corporate citizen by preserving the environment. So when the Campbell's facility in Napoleon, Ohio needed to find a more efficient and ...


    By IHS Markit

  • Entropy added taxing methodology: a case study with domestic refrigerators in India

    Use of thermal engineering appliances, especially refrigerators and air conditioners has increased enormously in both industrial and in domestic sectors. They cause considerable environmental pollution due to the release of a large quantity of refrigerant (chlorofluorocarbons) and the use of a large quantity of power, generated mainly from low quality domestic coal. Also available energy or ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Economic Evaluation of Emission Reductions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 in Europe

     Introduction The Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) regulates emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) are chemically related anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Because of their depleting ...

  • Reduction of the Emissions of HFC`s, PFC`s and SF6 in the European Union

     The report provides a first estimate of the development of the EU-wide use and emissions in 2005 and 2010 of the three industrial halogenated gases included in the Kyoto protocol, namely hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). It also makes a preliminary assessment of the options and costs of controlling these three gases, as well as of the ...

  • Ozone Depleting Substances

    Abstract In Europe the increase in ultra-violet radiation (UV) is estimated to be larger over the western parts because of large depletion in the total ozone column. UV global trends are estimated to increase by 3-4% per decade in northern hemisphere midlatitudes and 3-9% in southern hemisphere midlatitudes. The ozone layer can start recovering, but full recovery will take another 50 years if ...

  • Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines

    Introduction Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum ...


    By The World Bank

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