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ammonia level Applications

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    radiello™ Passive Sampler as a Tool for the Measurement of Atmospheric Ammonia Concentrations and Dry Deposition

    The radiello ammonia sampler impregnated with phosphoric acid represents a low-cost, reliable and simple tool for assessing the atmospheric deposition of ammonia at parts per billion (ppb) concentration levels.

    By Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for moisture in ammonia industry

    The highest purity of ammonia is a requisite chemical gas for the production of flat panel displays and for LEDs; the purity issue is one of achieving moisture levels at the ppb level, as in the case of epitaxial reactor applications. However, the problem requiring a solution derives in part from the fact that the FTIR spectra for moisture and ammonia overlap to the degree that the moisture peaks are masked by the ammonia peaks at high concentrations. As a result the moisture peaks cannot be used for quantitative concentration measurements.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Measurement solution for high NH3 monitoring from wastewater

    Protea was asked to supply a high level ammonia (NH3) measurement system for a waste water treatment plant. The reflux drums at the inlet to two ammonia stripping towers needed to be measured continuously. Protea designed a solution based around our Solus TDLAS analyser platform and a high level dilution system. The Solus analyser was configured for NH3 measurements in the range 0-500ppm. A dilution system incorporating special dilution probe and 19` control panel was installed before the analyser. This gave a dilution level of 600:1, enabling the NH3 analyser to measure in the range 0-30% Volume.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Analysis of Methylimidazoles in Caramel Colored Carbonated Beverages

    Caramel colorings are used as additives in a broad range of food and beverage products to impart a desired color, but have no nutritional or preservative function. Recently, the potential hazard to humans of ammonia- and ammonia-sulfite-process caramel colorings was raised, because they contain the by-product 4-methylimidazole, which is a potential carcinogen.1 The methylimidazole compounds are difficult to analyze due to their polar nature and low molecular weight. Traditional reversed phase techniques are unsuccessful in retaining these small polar compounds. Therefore, most HPLC methods utilize ion-exchange resins for analysis. Another common method involves GC analysis after the analytes first undergo a derivatization step. The purpose of the work shown in this article was to develop a simple and fast analytical method to determine the levels of 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole in caramel colored carbonated beverages.

    By Sigma-Aldrich Co., LLC based in Bellefonte, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for process NOx measurement

    Nitric acid HNO3 is an important intermediate reagent for production of several important end products, such as fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs/pigments, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic materials, plastics, and synthetic fibers. At nitric acid manufacturing plants, the Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer can be used to measure several gaseous components from the process stream for purposes of process control. A single system can be used to measure the high levels of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2, as well as water vapor H2O, nitrous oxide N2O, carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2 and ammonia NH3. The fixed installation products for these purposes are the Gasmet™ CEM II measurement system, and the Gasmet™ FCX Gas Analyzers, both of which utilize the FTIR measurement technique for simultaneous multicomponent analysis of the sample gas.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Potable water treatment

    As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

    By Applied Oxidation LLC based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA).

  • Water treatment

    As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

    By Applied Oxidation LLC based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA).

  • Water treatment for water distribution systems

    As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

    By Applied Oxidation LLC based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA).

  • NH3 Monitoring in Air

    NH3 (Ammonia) is a colorless gas with a distinctive pungent smell. Ammonia monitoring is essential in coal-fired power plants, where NH3 is used to reduce NOx emissions. The ammonia consumes all of the NOx, but its high concentration that is needed for these purposes also starts reacting with other things and in the process can clog up filters and cause premature failure of expensive SCR equipment and pre-heaters. Not to mention that these high levels create an irreparable damage to the environment.

    By Unisearch Associates Inc. based in Concord, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity based consents

    Water companies, water authorities or publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) need to have some knowledge of the composition of the wastes they it receive. In addition to testing for ammonia and BOD or COD levels, treatment works can license industrial discharges on the basis of concentrations of some of the known toxic compounds. However, it is recognised that very many non-regulated toxic materials still enter the treatment works and reduce the efficiency of biodegradation, and may cause toxic shock. The way is now open for more widespread use of direct toxicity tests as a basis for toxicity-based consents. Samples of the industrial effluent are collected at source, for testing on the actual bacteria of the receiving activated sludge. The tests used are the Respiration Inhibition Test and the Nitrification Inhibition Test. Note that this approach mirrors that of the regulators of discharges to receiving waters, who are now using direct toxicity tests (DTA) or whole effluent toxicity tests (WET tests) in order to protect the receiving environment.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

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