Deionized water, also known as demineralized water (DI water or de-ionized water; can also be spelled deionised water), is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization.
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Cyanidation is still the most widely used method to leach gold, using sodium or calcium cyanide as lixiviant. An anionic gold-cyanide complex is formed that is extractable by basic resins. Other metals present in the ore, such as silver and base metals ( copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, iron, etc. ) are also leached in cyanide media. Selective ion exchange resins are designed to preferentially adsorb the mono-valent gold-cyanide species.
All surface waters contain varying amounts of naturally occurring organic acids. The most commonly encountered being tannic and humic. These substances have varying molecular weights and varying amounts of carboxylic functionality. There has been much interest in the removal of these substances from drinking water supplies due to their tendency to form THM`s when chlorinated. They can be removed effectively by use of anion exchange resins operated in the chloride cycle. Because the organics can be removed by regeneration with brine, this technology is far most economical.
Deionized water, also known as demineralised water, is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate and even silica. Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion exchange resins which exchange hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion for dissolved minerals, which then recombine to form water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup.
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