The aluminium industry is the major source of perflurocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere, which are a major contributor to global warming. PFCs have greenhouse gas effects up to 10000 times that of CO2. Emissions have been reduced over the last 20 years, but further reductions are harder to achieve as all the mechanisms for PFC production are not known. In order to better understand the production of PFC on an industrial level, laboratory studies have been carried out using a small scale cell.
From the environmental point of view, an issue is any solid, liquid or gaseous substance introduced into the atmosphere that can cause air pollution. Given the wide variety of substances present in the atmosphere, have been proposed several methods of classification: Primary pollutants can be of gaseous or particulate.
By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia S.r.l. based in Montiglio, ITALY.
Closed chamber gas flux measurements can be made with Protea FTIR analysers to allow researchers in the field of atmospheric gas analysis from agricultural and livestock to measure evolved gases such as N2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and Methane (CH4) emissions from soil, plant and livestock are especially important gases to measure, given their high potential as greenhouse gases (GHGs). NH3, whilst not a greenhouse gas on the scale of N2O, CH4 and CO2, is a major emission from agricultural, such as after the spreading of liquid manure, and steps are required to measure and reduce the NH3 emissions and the effects they have on the ecosystem.
A large pharmaceutical plant runs a Thermal Oxidiser on plant to incinerate their solvent-containing gas streams before emission. When the oxidiser is offline, then the plant must monitor the release of solvent to the atmosphere. A ProtIR 204C fixed monitoring system was installed that continually measures 24 plant solvents, including Acetone, Cyclohexane, DCM, DMF, IPA, MIBK, Toluene and THF. Given the high levels that are possible, the system has an active dilution system, reducing the concentration of the measured gas in the analyser to levels that can be analysed simply. Chemometric modelling enables interferences from the overlapping absorption spectra to be accounted for, ensuring accurate analysis of all 24 gases.
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