Weathering of materials is most often an irreversible process affecting the cosmetic properties or strength of materials. This aging process is mainly driven by UV radiation, Heat and reactive elements in the atmosphere, for example chemical contamination. The plastic fabric of the product can dry and therefore weakened. The solar load can overheat the products and change material properties irreversibly. A common method to test the deterioration of materials is to expose materials to sun light and...Premium
Where the pyrheliometer is most suitable to quantify the total DNI of the solar spectrum. The spectroradiometer gives details about the energy distribution which is important for PV or CPV cell research. The solar spectrum wil change with the angle of incidence and its path through the atmosphere. Photons wil be reflected, scattered or absorbed. Big absorbers of infrared irradiance are water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozon.Premium
In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, various perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used. The emissions of the PFC compounds into the ambient air are reduced by scrubbing of the exhaust gases from the process. In this process, the Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzers can be used to measure the emissions into the atmosphere and also monitor the efficiency of the scrubbers. Typically monitored PFCs in the exhaust gas include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, trifluoromethane CHF3, and hexafluoroethane C2F6.Premium
The anesthetic gases and vapors which leak into the indoor atmosphere during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases (WAGs). The exposure is of relevance to thousands of professionals in hospitals, operating theaters, patient recovery rooms, dental offices, and veterinary clinics around the world, who may be continually exposed to the waste anesthetic gases during their workday. Typical gases of concern include nitrous oxide N2O and several halogenated compounds in vapor form, such as sevofluran...Premium
Solar Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) represents the direct solar component and contains about 80% of the total solar energy budget on earth. Outside the atmosphere (AM0) the solar irradiance is considdered as a constant (1367 W/m2) that slightly fluctuates with a 11 year cycle. The DNI at the earth surface is highly variable due to the atmospheric conditions (clouds, aerosols, water vapor and molecules).Premium
In most combustion process atmospheric nitrogen reacts with oxygen in high temperature conditions to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Total NOx production is the sum of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. The emissions of these gases are controlled through setting of emission limit values (ELVs) for power plants.Premium
Compressed breathing air is subject to strict limits of harmful contaminants defined in European standard EN 12021 and various defence standards such as DEF STAN 68-284 issue 3. The testing interval of breathing air compressors and associated equipment is 3 months and gases tested include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oil vapour defined as hexane and heavier hydrocarbons. EN 12021 covers underwater applications including self-contained open circuit compressed gas breathing (SCUBA) and compressed gas line...Premium
Reflection and transmission measurements on materials, vegetation, water or atmosphere give valuable information about biological, physical and chemical processes. Processes driven by solar radiation, in particular bands of the spectrum through the so called action spectra, can be analysed or quantified with a sensor senitive in the particular spectral band. The MS-720 portable spectroradiometer gives total freedom to be used in different applications and range of the spectrum between 350 - 1050 nm.Premium
Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) is driven by only direct solar radiation. To quantify the energy efficiency of a CPV system the total DNI and direct spectral solar irradiance, called spectral DNI, can be measured. Solar sensors are crucial during the phase of development and operation. Even at high sunny places, the composition and variability of the atmosphere strongly affects the solar spectral distribution and will impact on the energy yield and the decision on which cell type to use. The...Premium
Measurement of greenhouse gases released from soil and water surface forms an important part of climate change study. Microbial activity in the soil or for instance the melting of permafrost releases greenhouse gases such as Methane and nitrous oxide N2O into the atmosphere. Measurement of the concentration for these gases inside an open-bottom soil chamber placed on the soil over time tells the emission rate (flux) per chamber footprint area.Premium
HI-Q Environmental Product Company provides air sampling instrumentation & systems for several niche applications in a number of disciplines in the broad area of `Life Sciences`. In the Biomedical, Chemical, & Pharmaceutical industries, HI-Q has marketed instrumentation for certain applications for many years. Our ambient, in-door breathing level air samplers, commonly known in the industry as `Goose-Neck` or `Giraffe` air samplers have been instrumental in analyzing workplace exposure. HI-Q has also...
By HI-Q Environmental Products Company based in San Diego, CALIFORNIA (USA).
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