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carbon monoxide control Applications

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    Air pollution control for the ethanol/biodesel industry

    Renewable energy plants are expanding and developing at a significant rate in North America and throughout the world. In the United States, the Clean Air Act for reformulated gasoline (RFG) mandates a 2wt.% oxygen requirement, driving the demand for more production. Ethanol is the most viable additive because it is a clean-burning fuel produced from renewable, domestic biomass sources. However, the production of these fuels can result in unacceptable levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), all regulated by environmental agencies.

    By Anguil Environmental Systems, Inc. based in Milwaukee, WISCONSIN (USA).

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    High quality gas sensor solutions for process control

    Gas monitors controlling heat treatment of metals. Endothermic gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and other gases that is required for hardening or carburising of steel. By carefully controlling the amounts of each gas and the temperature in the treatment furnace, the steel surface can be hardened to provide long lasting components such as gears and tools.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Air pollution control for the fuel cell industry

    Hydrogen and Carbon Monoxide abatement from fuel cell off gas processes – commonly use specialty catalyst for air pollution control needs.

    By Catalytic Products International (CPI) based in Lake Zurich, ILLINOIS (USA).

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    Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Indoor Air Quality

    Introduction: Accurate control of critical indoor environmental parameters is not only essential for the well-being and comfort of building occupants, but also has a major impact on energy efficiency. A multitude of parameters can affect indoor air quality (IAQ) from gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds to particulates, humidity and bacteria such as legionella. Carbon dioxide is one of the greatest variables affecting indoor environmental quality since it is produced by people occupying the building. Carbon dioxide production is a function of the number, size and activity levels of the people present in the building. Local concentrations can therefore vary dramatically – for example when a meeting room is occupied, or while workers are on lunch or coffee breaks.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Biomass Industry

    Flue gas particulate and acid gases from biomass and bagasse boilers. Removal of ethanol, CO2 scrubbers and yeast cells from fermenters.  Removal of ash particulate, tars, acid gases and ammonia from steam reformers, gasifiers, pyrolosis units and cooling of syngas streams to acceptable limits to enable use as a fuel source for power generation or as a feedstock for chemical products. For tar removal, combination technologies can be used including oil based scrubbing solutions to reduce waste water generation. Ethanol and yeast cell removal from fermenter off-gases. Methanol from processing operations. Hydrogen sulfide removal on landfill, digester and producer gases with regenerable chemistries. Odor control for biomass storage facilities including carbon monoxide removal in wood chip storage areas. 

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for process NOx measurement

    Nitric acid HNO3 is an important intermediate reagent for production of several important end products, such as fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs/pigments, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic materials, plastics, and synthetic fibers. At nitric acid manufacturing plants, the Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer can be used to measure several gaseous components from the process stream for purposes of process control. A single system can be used to measure the high levels of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2, as well as water vapor H2O, nitrous oxide N2O, carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2 and ammonia NH3. The fixed installation products for these purposes are the Gasmet™ CEM II measurement system, and the Gasmet™ FCX Gas Analyzers, both of which utilize the FTIR measurement technique for simultaneous multicomponent analysis of the sample gas.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • CH4 Monitoring in Air

    CH4 (Methane) is a colorless, odorless natural gas that is used in a wide variety of industrial applications such as power generation and chemical production. It is also a byproduct of many biological and geological processes, fracking, and gas drilling. It is highly flammable and creates amounts of carbon monoxide as its combustion byproduct. Methane needs constant monitoring in waste water treatment (for co-generation) and to ensure proper process control (e.g. to determine burning efficiency). A quality CH4 analyzer that is able to provide continuous monitoring is a perfect solution for this.

    By Unisearch Associates Inc. based in Concord, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • CO2 / CO Monitoring in Air

    CO (carbon monoxide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) are generally measured to ensure process control. CO2 is the desired product and CO is undesired in combustion since it will explode in high enough concentrations. CO2 and CO concentrations can also be used to determine other process-specific efficiencies. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment that can be calibrated as a CO and CO2 analyzer is thereby essential for process control.

    By Unisearch Associates Inc. based in Concord, ONTARIO (CANADA).

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    Gas Sensing for Gasification

    Syngas (short for synthetic gas) can be burnt and used as a fuel source, the main constituents of syngas are Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen (H), which amount for around 85% of Syngas, and it is produced by a process called Gasification. Gasification starts with a base material which can originate from a wide variety of materials for example wood chips and pellets, plastics, municipal solid waste, sewage, waste crops, and fossil fuels such as coal. During Gasification the base material is reacted at high temperature without combustion with controlled amounts of oxygen (O) or steam. The composition of the base material combined with the amount of oxygen and heat used in the process affects the composition of the resultant SynGas, in which the CO can vary between around 20 and 60%. In addition, large amounts of H and CO are also formed. The measurement of CO is therefore an important feature in the production of SynGas.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Accurate control of critical indoor environmental parameters is not only essential for the well-being and comfort of building occupants, but also has a major impact on energy efficiency. A multitude of parameters can affect indoor air quality (IAQ) from gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds to particulates, humidity and bacteria such as legionella. CO2 is one of the greatest variables affecting indoor environmental quality since it is produced by people occupying the building. CO2 production is a function of the number, size and activity levels of the people present in the building. Local concentrations can therefore vary dramatically – for example when a meeting room is occupied, or while workers are on lunch or coffee breaks. Excess CO2 levels can lead to tiredness and a lack of concentration and can contribute to the symptoms of Sick Building Syndrome such as headaches, eye, nose and throat irritation, itchy skin and nausea.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

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