chemical free water treatment Applications

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Cyanide Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide

by USP Technologies     based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA)

Cyanides are used in a number of chemical synthesis and metallurgical processes (as simple salts or cyanide complexes). As a class, cyanides are highly toxic and must be destroyed or removed from wastewaters prior to discharge. The most common method for treating free or simple cyanide is alkaline chlorination. However, chlorination of cyanide results in highly toxic intermediates (e.g., cyanogen chloride) and, if organic material is present, chlorinated VOC’s. These compounds, together with the residual chlorine, create additional environmental problems. Consequently, there is a growing need for alternative, non-chlorine methods for destroying cyanides. Peroxygen compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfuric acid (1), and persulfates (1) are effective alternatives to alkaline chlorination for destroying free and complexed cyanides. The choice of peroxygen system depends on the reaction time available, the desired products (cyanate, or CO2 and NH3), the types of cyanides being treated (free, weak acid dissociable, or inert), and the system economics. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While hydrogen peroxide will oxidize free cyanide, it is common to catalyze the reaction with a transition metal such as soluble copper, vanadium, tungsten or silver in concentrations of 5 to 50 mg/L (2).

Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

by USP Technologies     based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA)

Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

Drinking water treatment

by Lenntech Water Treatment     based in Delft, NETHERLANDS

Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater. Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organisation or by the European Union. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.

CONDOMINIUM REPLACES WATER SOFTENER WITH GREEN SCALEWATCHER WATER CONDITIONER

by Scalewatcher North America Inc.     based in Oxford, PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

Angel*Haus Condominium, a condo community in Purgatory’s Durango Mountain Resort, Colorado, has replaced its water softener with the computerized, electronic, water-conditioner Scalewatcher from Scalewatcher North America. By installing Scalewatcher, the condominum has improved the water quality, removed the need to buy and store salt and substantially reduced its water costs. Angelhaus Condominium is a modernised 40 unit building containing individually owned one, two and three bedroom units. Located at the base of the Durango Mountain Resort and less than 200 yards from the base lifts, the units are primarily rented out by their owners for skiing and walking vacations. The managing agents were spending around $100 a month on salt for the condominium’s water softener in addition to a further $200 to $700 for regular maintenance to calibrate the unit. Despite this expenditure, owners regularly complained about the poor water quality. “I would also have to spend time and effort hauling the salt downstairs to where the softener was located and I was also conscious we were flushing water down the drain”, said Sarelyn Saint, Managing Agent at Angel*Haus Condominium. Looking for an alternative solution for Angel*Haus Condominiums’ hard water problem, Sarelyn Saint decided to investigate the Scalewatcher system. After presenting the information to his board it was decided to install a Scalewatcher unit onto the main water line. “We had a board meeting just two months after the system was installed and our board members mentioned that they could tell the difference with the water, particularly the dishes and taste of the water”, concluded Sarelyn Saint. “We no longer have to budget for water treatment but best of all I don’t even have to think about it anymore and neither do the owners”. Condos are often on a shared water or loop system, with the pipes running from one unit to the next or are all fed off of a main valve. In hard water areas, scale quickly builds up in pipes and water fed applicances meaning that the water supply has to be regularly turning off for maintenance. Shutting off the service to one unit often means shutting off the service to all the units for work to be carried out. To alleviate the problems, many condominiums purchase water softeners. However, water softeners use copious amounts of both water and salt, which are expensive to buy and salt is also bulky to store. In addition, in many States now, including Southern California, municipalities and water departments are severely limiting, and in some cases prohibiting, the use of salt-regenerating water softeners due to concern regarding the increased levels of salt in ground water. The award-winning Scalewatcher system not only helps building managers meet these regulations by minimizing salt usage but also saves money on salt purchase and has the additional benefit of removing scale from water-fed equipment. The environmentally friendly Scalewatcher provides a permanent solution to hard water problems without the need of chemicals, salt or maintenance. It works by producing a varying electronically applied force field, induced by a coil wrapped around the outside of the pipework, which keeps the minerals in suspension and thus prevents limescale forming. The water’s increased solubility enables it to dissolve existing scale, which is gradually washed away. Scalewatcher models are based on continuous research and over 20 years experience and expertise as market leaders in electronic scale control with countless units sold worldwide. The patented Scalewatcher systems start at $248.00 USD and are capable of treating pipe sizes from one to 120 inches. All Scalewatcher systems come with a full performance guarantee and include free shipping throughout North America

CUSTOMER CONFIRMS LONGEVITY OF SCALEWATCHER ELECTRONIC WATER CONDITIONER

by Scalewatcher North America Inc.     based in Oxford, PENNSYLVANIA (USA)

Scalewatcher North America, manufacturer of the original, patented and award-winning computerized electronic water-conditioner, states in its literature that the device is produced to last at least 20 years and comes with a 10 year warranty. However, no reports have been received on the longevity of the units sold since the company was launched over 20 years ago. Now a customer in Gilroy, California has come forward requesting a new Scalewatcher unit after the device she purchased in 1992 finally stopped working. She purchased the new Scalewatcher from local dealer, Aqua Genesis, and reported that: “ I noticed that the sprinklers are covering more of an area than before. When I squirt water on the black and white tile patio table there are no longer any calcium spots even if I do not dry it off. The tile shower and the clear shower door are easier to wipe down after my shower. The new ScaleWatcher is much better than before. It certainly was time to replace the old one.” The new, innovative, electronic Scalewatcher water conditioner uses proven technology to quickly and effectively dissolve existing limescale and prevent it recurring, returning water systems and water-fed appliances such as kettles, washing machines and dishwashers to their former efficiency. It also removes scale around faucets, sinks, baths, plugholes and shower roses as well as preventing white marks on shower screens and mould on shower curtains. The system requires no plumbing, chemicals or maintenance and is environmentally friendly. In addition scale costs money for householders through additional cleaning products, the early renewal of water–fed equipment and additional costs to heat water. It is estimated that 40% more energy is needed to heat water in a system fouled with ¼ inch of limescale. Commenting Jan de Baat Doelman, President of Scalewatcher North America says: “We have always built Scalewatcher electronic water conditions to last and this latest information confirms the device’s longevity. Scalewatcher will pay for itself in less than three years and then carry on providing homes with a scale free environment many more years to come. ” Scalewatcher models are based on continuous research and over 20 years experience and expertise as market leaders in electronic scale control with countless units sold worldwide. The patented Scalewatcher systems start at $248.00 USD and are capable of treating pipe sizes from one to 120 inches. All Scalewatcher systems come with a full performance guarantee and include free shipping throughout North America.

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