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chemical release prevention Applications

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for chemical decontamination industry

    The threat of terror in the form of chemical and biological warfare agents has been a reality globally since March 1995, when the Aum Shinrikyo sect killed 12 people and injured nearly 6,000 by releasing sarin nerve gas in the Tokyo subway system. More recently, the 2001 anthrax attacks in the USA was a wake-up call that the threat is real. Recent outbreaks of H1N1 and SARS posed threats of worldwide epidemics because air travel provides a means for these diseases to spread globally in less than 24 hours. A major concern of several US government agencies, such as the Department of Defense, Homeland Security, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is not only the detection of hazardous chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA) or bacteria or viruses that pose an epidemic threat, but the timely decontamination of those agents to a level where they no longer pose a threat to human health and life. The solution requires a means to monitor the effectiveness of the decontaminating reactant or reactants to an endpoint that has been reliably shown to be more than 99% effective in rendering the targeted agents harmless under controlled conditions.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for chemical weapon agents

    The nation has stockpiled thousands of cylinders and canisters of toxic and deadly chemical weapon agents, including mustard gas (HD), sarin (GB), tabun (GA), and V-agents. Most of these CWAs are stored at DOD facilities around the country and many have been in storage for years and years. As a consequence, DOD requirements specify that the stockpiles have to be monitored regularly for leakages to prevent release to the environment and exposure to personnel.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Headworks Odor and Corrosion Control Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide typically controls odors and corrosion at treatment plant headworks by direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) within the wastewater. In the direct oxidation mode, H2O2 is applied to the wastewater 5-30 minutes prior to the point where the odors are being released, generally as the wastewater line enters the plant boundary. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide treatment depends upon the available reaction time, the level of iron in the wastewater (reaction catalyst), wastewater pH and temperature, and the initial and target levels of H2S odor. Under optimal conditions, effective dose ratios are 1.2 - 1.5 parts H2O2 per part dissolved sulfide, and can be reliably estimated through beaker tests. H2O2 + H2S → S0 + 2H2O Frequently, control of odors through the primary clarifiers is wanted. In such case, the mechanism of control is both direct oxidation of H2S (as it rises from the solids blanket), and prevention of odor generation (by supplying dissolved oxygen). Control is typically achieved with a booster dose of 1-2 mg/L H2O2 added to the clarifier influent. Higher doses or alternate modes of addition may be required in cases where: 1) hydraulic retention times are > 2-3 hours; 2) solids blanket depths are > 1-2 feet; 3) soluble BOD levels are > 200-300 mg/L; or 4) waste activated sludge is co-settled with the primary solids. 2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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