chlorinated compounds Applications

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Chlorine dioxide treatment for rendering

by DuPont Chlorine Dioxide     based in North Kingstown,, RHODE ISLAND (USA)

Odor Control: Chlorine dioxide controls odors by destroying hydrogen sulfide through chemical oxidation.  Using an odor scrubber, chlorine dioxide solutions may be added directly to water containing the odorous compound for quick and cost-effective oxidations.

Petrochemical

by Babcock & Wilcox MEGTEC     based in De Pere, WISCONSIN (USA)

Durable regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) technology is at the core of our systems. MEGTEC designs and engineers system solutions to meet your special requirements, ranging from energy-efficient treatment of dilute volatile organic compound (VOC) flows, such as tank ventilation, to demanding applications utilizing VOC energy for secondary heat recovery; for example, in the form of process streams. This can include pre- and tail gas treatment systems, and could handle hazardous components such as sulphurous or chlorinated hydrocarbons. For special requirements, we can offer FTO (flameless thermal oxidation) and we can design systems operating safely on oxygen contents below 5%.

Stack Testing for the Aluminum Industry

by AirSource Technologies, Inc.     based in Shawnee, KANSAS (USA)

ALUMINUM INDUSTRY: Performed a range of test measurements required by the promulgation of the Secondary Aluminum MACT standards. Testing included measurements of Hazardous Air Pollutants for establishing Area vs. Major Source Determinations, as well as dioxin/furan compounds associated with chlorine emissions from fluxing operations.

Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Petroleum/Petrochemical Industry

by Bionomic Industries Inc.     based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA)

Scrubbing of Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and other organosulfur compounds from sour gas and other sources. Proprietary regenerative scrubbing chemistries for hydrogen sulfide removal with sulfur production. By-product production systems for producing sodium hydrosulfide (Nash) from hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide scrubbing. Recover catalyst dust from FCC units. HCL storage tank vent scrubbing. Removal of HCL and particulate from thermal oxidizers burning chlorinated plastics. Marine drilling platforms sulfur dioxide thermal oxidizer emissions.  Asphalt plant scrubbers and hydrogen sulfide emissions from holding tanks. Pilot plant scrubber systems for hydrogen sulfide. Removal of halogenated and sulfur bearing gaseous compounds from high temperature thermal oxidizers and drilling platforms waste. Well drilling hydrochloric acid storage tanks.

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation for the soil and groundwater industry

by REGENESIS     based in San Clemente, CALIFORNIA (USA)

Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation is the practice of adding hydrogen (an electron donor) to groundwater and/or soil to increase the number and vitality of indigenous microorganisms performing anaerobic bioremediation (reductive dechlorination) on any anaerobically degradable compound or chlorinated contaminant. The most commonly targeted chlorinated groundwater contaminants are primarily used in industry as degreasing agents and include: Perchloroethylene (PCE), Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE), Vinyl Chloride (VC).

Other anaerobically degradable compounds include: carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, certain pesticides/herbicides, perchlorate, nitrate, nitroaromatic explosives (TNT, RDX), dyes and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s).

Potable water treatment

by Applied Oxidation LLC     based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA)

As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

Water treatment

by Applied Oxidation LLC     based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA)

As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

Water treatment for water distribution systems

by Applied Oxidation LLC     based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA)

As a selective oxidizing agent, chlorine dioxide possesses several chemical advantages when compared to the traditional use of chlorine in wastewater treatment. Chlorine dioxide does not hydrolyze in water, and thus it retains its biocidal activity over a broader range of pH. It is also non reactive with ammonia and most nitrogen-containing compounds, and thus effective at lower dose levels than chlorine. It also eliminates phenols, simple cyanides and sulfides by oxidation. Likewise it is effective at odor control and will oxidize sulfides. Chlorine dioxide is also effective at oxidizing iron and manganese compounds.

Ozone/UV systems for swimming pool water treatment

by Lifetech     based in Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC

Studies have proven that chlorine use has negative consequences due to the formation of byproducts, i.e. chlorinated organic compounds and chloramines. Irritation of eyes and mucous membranes, drying out the skin as well as “chlorine smell” are well known troubles. However, these byproducts also accelerate the corrosion in pool halls and significant risk is given by their toxicity (chloramines, combined chlorine) and/or carcinogenicity. Higher rate of asthma prevalence is one of the consequences. These are the reasons why the combined chlorine content - as a marker of chlorination byproducts presence - is to be monitored and why its limit values are specified by authorities. To meet the limits can be tedious and expensive because more water has to be changed and heated up. Chlorine disinfection is not sufficient to prevent infections caused by some waterborne pathogens as dangerous protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.

Water treatment for cooling towers

by Applied Oxidation LLC     based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA)

Controlling and preventing the growth of microorganisms in a cooling tower is extremely important and required to keep the system running at optimal levels. The presence of microorganisms will cause the system to breakdown and decreases the efficiency of the heat transfer. Typically oxidizing biocides such as chlorine and bromine have been used to treat cooling water. Unfortunately these chemicals are highly reactive with other chemicals and microbiological species found in the water. Chlorine dioxide however is very non-reactive to other compounds found in the water and retains biocidal efficacy. Likewise it is also a superior chemical for removing the biofilm, which leads to the most predominant problems that all cooling towers face.

Soil and Groundwater treatment solutions for bioremediation industry

by QM Environmental Services Ltd.     based in The Hague, NETHERLANDS

Today bioremediation is successfully used as soil– and groundwater remediation technology. Many bioremediation systems, both in-situ as ex-situ techniques, usually result in considerable cost savings. Since the beginning of the 1980’s both in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation projects have been successfully completed worldwide through the use of preselected and adapted bacteria. QM Environmental Services supplies a range of microbial, bioactivator and nutrient products and gas delivery systems for the use in both aerobic and anaerobic bioremediation programs. Most common contaminants ranging from aliphatic hydrocarbons such as petroleum, lubrication oils, aromatic compounds like benzene and toluene to chlorinated solvents can be treated with these products.

Cyanide Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide

by USP Technologies     based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA)

Cyanides are used in a number of chemical synthesis and metallurgical processes (as simple salts or cyanide complexes). As a class, cyanides are highly toxic and must be destroyed or removed from wastewaters prior to discharge. The most common method for treating free or simple cyanide is alkaline chlorination. However, chlorination of cyanide results in highly toxic intermediates (e.g., cyanogen chloride) and, if organic material is present, chlorinated VOC’s. These compounds, together with the residual chlorine, create additional environmental problems. Consequently, there is a growing need for alternative, non-chlorine methods for destroying cyanides. Peroxygen compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfuric acid (1), and persulfates (1) are effective alternatives to alkaline chlorination for destroying free and complexed cyanides. The choice of peroxygen system depends on the reaction time available, the desired products (cyanate, or CO2 and NH3), the types of cyanides being treated (free, weak acid dissociable, or inert), and the system economics. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While hydrogen peroxide will oxidize free cyanide, it is common to catalyze the reaction with a transition metal such as soluble copper, vanadium, tungsten or silver in concentrations of 5 to 50 mg/L (2).

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