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chlorine from water removal Applications

  • Industrial water TOC and Color removal from water

    All surface waters contain varying amounts of naturally occurring organic acids. The most commonly encountered being tannic and humic. These substances have varying molecular weights and varying amounts of carboxylic functionality. There has been much interest in the removal of these substances from drinking water supplies due to their tendency to form THM`s when chlorinated. They can be removed effectively by use of anion exchange resins operated in the chloride cycle. Because the organics can be removed by regeneration with brine, this technology is far most economical.

    By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.

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    Ultraviolet disinfection systems for the de-chlorination industry

    The purpose of de-chlorination is the removal of free chlorine and combined chlorine compounds from potable water, as supplied by municipal water supplies. Chlorine will oxidize the surface of thin film composite polyamide membranes, causing the membrane to lose its ability to repel or reject salts. As a result, the membranes used in Reverse Osmosis (RO) or Electro-deionisation (EDI) systems will exhibit shorter lifetimes when exposed to chlorine in the water they are treating and membrane manufacturers will usually specify an upper limit to ensure a suitable life of the membrane. As a result, it is usual to use a method of dechlorination upstream of the RO or EDI system.

    By atg UV Technology based in Wigan, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in Municipal Water Treatment Plants

    Applications include: emergency chlorine scrubber systems for cylinder storage area. Removal of powdered carbon particulate emitted from storage silo vents during the loading operation. 

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

  • Odor Scrubbers Applications with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution. Step 1: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O Step 2: 4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when used in place of bleach, one gallon 50% H2O2 for every 10 gallons of 15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). This generally translates into a break-even cost scenario. Sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) is added to maintain a pH of 10.0 - 10.5 in the scrubbing solution. There is also in practice a process which uses H2O2 in series with bleach to scrub composting odors. This process relies on a series of three packed tower scrubbers: the first is a pH neutral water wash (to remove ammonia and amine odors); the second uses a conventional caustic/bleach solution in which the bleach is purposely overdosed (to oxidize the complex organic sulfur odors); and the third uses a caustic/H2O2 solution (to remove the unreacted chlorine vapors carried over from the second stage). H2O2 + HOCl → HCl + H2O + O2 Typical dose ratios are 0.5 parts H2O2 per part hypochlorite (OCl-), with sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) added to maintain a pH of 8.5 in the scrubbing solution.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Cyanide Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Cyanides are used in a number of chemical synthesis and metallurgical processes (as simple salts or cyanide complexes). As a class, cyanides are highly toxic and must be destroyed or removed from wastewaters prior to discharge. The most common method for treating free or simple cyanide is alkaline chlorination. However, chlorination of cyanide results in highly toxic intermediates (e.g., cyanogen chloride) and, if organic material is present, chlorinated VOC’s. These compounds, together with the residual chlorine, create additional environmental problems. Consequently, there is a growing need for alternative, non-chlorine methods for destroying cyanides. Peroxygen compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfuric acid (1), and persulfates (1) are effective alternatives to alkaline chlorination for destroying free and complexed cyanides. The choice of peroxygen system depends on the reaction time available, the desired products (cyanate, or CO2 and NH3), the types of cyanides being treated (free, weak acid dissociable, or inert), and the system economics. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While hydrogen peroxide will oxidize free cyanide, it is common to catalyze the reaction with a transition metal such as soluble copper, vanadium, tungsten or silver in concentrations of 5 to 50 mg/L (2).

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Water treatment for hospitals

    Horticultural and greenhouse operations are facing increasing challenges in dealing with sanitation issues related to water treatment. Over the course of growing a crop, pathogenic microorganisms accumulate and algae flourish on moist surfaces posing a constant threat to plants and produce. The main challenges lie the areas of irrigation water, elimination of biofilm and algae control. Existing biocidal products, while effective in killing algae, are not effective in removing biofilm from the water lines. The ultimate solution would be to employ a biocide that is capable to control algae on greenhouse surfaces and strip the biofilm in irrigation lines. Chlorine dioxide has demonstrated to possess both properties.

    By Applied Oxidation LLC based in Chattanooga, TENNESSEE (USA).

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    Ultraviolet disinfection systems for the process water

    Water is often used as a product, or as part of the manufacturing process. In many industrial applications, processes are chemical (chlorine) intolerant, and UV is widely adopted. atg UV Technology engineers will be pleased to discuss solving disinfection problems with you. As well as a powerful disinfectant, UV is used to remove chlorine, chloramines, ozone, bromine, and a wide variety of contaminants from industrial process water. Within micro-electronics facilities for example, UV is used to remove Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from ultra pure rinse water.

    By atg UV Technology based in Wigan, UNITED KINGDOM.

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