The chloride process of titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment manufacture first converts titania-containing ores to TiCl4 via a carbochlorination reaction at a high temperature in a chlorinator in the presence of chlorine gas and petroleum coke added as a reductant.
By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.
Problem: Organic matter (UV254/TOC) in drinking water can react with chlorine to form harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some removal of TOC is achieved through the conventional drinking water treatment processes, while carbon absorption may be used to further enhance the removal of TOC prior to chlorine disinfection.
By Real Tech Inc. based in Whitby, ONTARIO (CANADA).
Instruments for monitoring the aeration-process, nitrification and de-nitrification; chlorination and de-chlorination; as well as the final discharge into the environment.
By SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG based in Hinwil, SWITZERLAND.
Drinking water supply and distribution systems around the world (a critical and interdependent component of a nation’s infrastructure) are vulnerable to both intentional and accidental contamination. Unusual water quality may serve as a warning of potential contamination. The available physico-chemical sensors utilize general water quality parameters, such as free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride, ammonia, nitrate to detect the contamination. Generally, one or more of these water quality parameters will change due to the injection of a contaminant. However, no single chemical sensor responds to all possible contaminants nor can they give any indication of the potential toxicity of complex mixtures.
By microLAN B.V. based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.
Studies have proven that chlorine use has negative consequences due to the formation of byproducts, i.e. chlorinated organic compounds and chloramines. Irritation of eyes and mucous membranes, drying out the skin as well as “chlorine smell” are well known troubles. However, these byproducts also accelerate the corrosion in pool halls and significant risk is given by their toxicity (chloramines, combined chlorine) and/or carcinogenicity. Higher rate of asthma prevalence is one of the consequences. These are the reasons why the combined chlorine content - as a marker of chlorination byproducts presence - is to be monitored and why its limit values are specified by authorities. To meet the limits can be tedious and expensive because more water has to be changed and heated up. Chlorine disinfection is not sufficient to prevent infections caused by some waterborne pathogens as dangerous protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.
By LIFETECH based in Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC.
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