Drinking water supply and distribution systems around the world (a critical and interdependent component of a nation’s infrastructure) are vulnerable to both intentional and accidental contamination. Unusual water quality may serve as a warning of potential contamination. The available physico-chemical sensors utilize general water quality parameters, such as free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride, ammonia, nitrate to detect the contamination. Generally, one or more of these water quality parameters will change due to the injection of a contaminant. However, no single chemical sensor responds to all possible contaminants nor can they give any indication of the potential toxicity of complex mixtures.
By microLAN B.V. - Aqualabo Group based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is a very useful chemical used in a variety of industries. However, HF is highly toxic with potential fatal consequences with exposure to humans, so facilities that make or use HF should exercise great care. Nevertheless, there is always the risk of leaks from process elements such as valves, pump seals and storage vessels. Tanker loading, transporting and unloading operations also provide opportunity for HF releases. Industrial processes that make or use HF typically have arrays of point sensors distributed throughout the unit. However, these sensors are maintenance intensive and have relatively slow response times. In addition, a point sensor will not detect an HF release unless it is located directly in the area of that release. Electrochemical HF sensors also respond to chlorine, ammonia, and sulfur dioxide, resulting in false alarms.
By Boreal Laser Inc. based in Edmonton, ALBERTA (CANADA).
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