For particulate matter (PM) emission control in high temperature exhaust streams, such as those from biomass or coal boilers and heaters, common dedusters such as cyclones and multicyclones are not able to comply with current emission limits. This is mainly due to their low efficiency, particularly for small particles (less than 10µm). In order to meet emission limits this usually requires an additional investment in a final stage deduster. Bag filters (BF) are very efficient dedusters. They can also be...
IntroductionMercury is one of the most toxic trace contaminant naturally occurring in the coals. During the coal combustion process at the coal-fired power plants mercury is released into the environment. To manage effectively the stack gas cleaning process, it is necessary to know the mercury content in the coal, and also in stack gas, liquid and solid wastes.
Coal combustion residuals (CCR) are generated during the power generation process and can include fly ash, bottom ash, boilerslag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residuals. CCRs contain trace concentrations of heavy metals and therefore cannot be dumped or stored where rainwater can leach the metals. Liner systems can be used to contain the coal combustion by-products and protect them from leaching into the environment.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is the product of the combustion of sulfur compounds and causes significant environmental pollution. The main source of sulfur dioxide SO2 in the environment are from various industrial processes such as the burning of coal in power stations, the extraction of metals from ore and combustion of fuel within automobiles.
Most large coal fired power plants and combustion processes are required to monitor CO, NO and NO2 (NOx), SO2 and possibly CO2; in addition the analyser has to be normalised to Standard conditions. For this application CODEL offers the five channel GCEM 40 series which uses Infrared absorption to measure these gases plus moisture, pressure and temperature. The analyser can be configured for single channel operation to monitor any of these gases plus CH4 and HCl.
Boiler combustion control, O2 and CO
DeNOx system, NH3 and NO
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP), CO monitoring for explosion prevention
Stack gas emissions, NH3, H2O, NO
Coal silos, CO monitoring for explosion prevention and detection of smouldering fires (only in coal fired plants)
Stack gas emission
Coal silo, explosion prevention
Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is a fuel produced from various types of wastes such as Municipal Solid wastes (MSW), industrial wastes or commercial wastes. RDF consists largely of combustible components of such wastes, as non-recyclable plastics, paper cardboard, metal, and rubber. These fractions are separated by different processing steps, such as screening, air classification, ballistic separation, separation of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, glass, stones and other foreign materials and shredding into a...
High-temperature processes, such as coal and oil combustion in electric power stations and industrial plants, waste incineration, roasting and smelting of ores in non-ferrous metal smelters, and kiln operations in cement plants, emit several contaminants, especially those being easily volatile like lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic.
The consequences of an industrial dust explosion or fire are unthinkable - worker injury, loss of life, property damage, business interruption, and irreversible environmental harm. Few companies realize how many diverse and common industrial applications produce combustible particulates, or where in their facilities this catastrophic threat is settling. What is a combustible dust? “A combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or other oxidizing medium...
Secondary Air Flow Overview: The need for accurate, repeatable & reliable combustion air measurements in power generation plants is critical to efficient operation and safety throughout the entire facility and processes. Accurate secondary air flow measurement to the burners is critical for maintaining the proper air to fuel ratio, resulting in more complete and stable combustion, better performance and lower emissions. Coal-fired power plant applications pose a number of challenges to obtaining these...
The history of air pollution regulation dates back as far as the 13th century when in 1273, Edward I (Longshanks) of England prohibited the burning of sea coal in London. The smoke produced by its combustion was considered detrimental to human health.
By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, regulations were being passed that sought to control air pollution predominantly for smoke and odour control. Traditionally, regulators were concerned with the visual impact of the discharge from a stack or chimney. Therefore...