Flue-gas analyzers are designed to be rugged and accurate at the same time. They are used by the HVAC industry, energy industry, process control, glass industry, food industry, universities and analysis is required.
Boiler combustion control, O2 and CO
DeNOx system, NH3 and NO
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP), CO monitoring for explosion prevention
Stack gas emissions, NH3, H2O, NO
Coal silos, CO monitoring for explosion prevention and detection of smouldering fires (only in coal fired plants)
Stack gas emission
Coal silo, explosion prevention
Most large coal fired power plants and combustion processes are required to monitor CO, NO and NO2 (NOx), SO2 and possibly CO2; in addition the analyser has to be normalised to Standard conditions. For this application CODEL offers the five channel GCEM 40 series which uses Infrared absorption to measure these gases plus moisture, pressure and temperature. The analyser can be configured for single channel operation to monitor any of these gases plus CH4 and HCl.
Blast furnace offgas, combustion control, CO, CO2, O2
Converter (Basic oxygen furnace BOF)
CO gas recovery
O2 measurement for explosion prevention
Electric arc furnace offgas, combustion control, CO, O2, H2O
Reheating furnaces, O2
CO analysis in oven offgas
O2 analysis for explosion prevention in raw coke gas or after tar precipitator
NH3 measurement after scrubber
H2S measurement after scrubber
Protea supplied a complete turn-key measuring system for multi-point sampling in a University combustion research laboratory. Utilising the latest in FTIR spectroscopy, atmosFIR, a complete cabinet system was supplied containing: atmosFIR FTIR Gas analyser, Sampling System Control Module (SSCM), Heated Stream Selection Module (HSSM), Temperature Control Module (TCM), 4 heated sample lines, 4 heated sample probes, Embedded PC controller.
In most combustion process atmospheric nitrogen reacts with oxygen in high temperature conditions to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Total NOx production is the sum of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. The emissions of these gases are controlled through setting of emission limit values (ELVs) for power plants.
The exhaust gas from combustion engines is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter. The composition of the gas may change rapidly. Multicomponent analysis of exhaust gases can be performed with a Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer with a response time (T90) of one second. The winning combination is the result using of a small volume gas sample cell, a powerful sample pump and a fast detector with liquid nitrogen cooling. The analyzer, sampling system and computer can be assembled on a cart for use in a...
Many large combustion plants are now required to monitor mass emissions of major pollutants and to do so requires an accurate measurement of stack gas velocity. The VCEM 5100 is certified to EN 15267 part 3 QAL 1 for all industrial processes including waste incineration. It has several key advantages, firstly the sensors optics are not in contact with the hot and dusty environment, the VCEM 5100 can monitor gases at temperatures exceeding 10000C and the analyser requires minimal maintenance. The VCEM 5100 can be...
CH4 (Methane) is a colorless, odorless natural gas that is used in a wide variety of industrial applications such as power generation and chemical production. It is also a byproduct of many biological and geological processes, fracking, and gas drilling. It is highly flammable and creates amounts of carbon monoxide as its combustion byproduct. Methane needs constant monitoring in waste water treatment (for co-generation) and to ensure proper process control (e.g. to determine burning efficiency). A quality CH4...
GasFinder2 can be permanently installed to monitor chemical and petroleum plants for both combustible and toxic gases. GasFinder2 can be used to replace arrays of point sensors for perimeter monitoring. A single light path will replace many point sensors. With GasFinder2 perimeter monitoring, all gas dispersed from a facility is detected and logged.
Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal poisoning in many industrialized countries. Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odorless and tasteless gas caused by the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas to the human body, when inhaled it binds to hemoglobin, myoglobin, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase reducing oxygen storage, transport and respiration in these organelles.
Oil wells almost always produce natural gas (“associated gas”) along with the petroleum. In many cases, it is uneconomical to process due to heavy contamination. As a consequence, this gas is combusted, “flared” or simply vented as-is during upset conditions in the process. Newly updated EPA regulations like 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO (also known as Quad O) as well as the new RSR MACT rule for refineries, requires oil & gas companies to report the flare gas emitted to our atmosphere....
Reciprocating internal combustion engines burning natural gas are a source of formaldehyde emissions. There are strict tolerances imposed on operators of engines to ensure that formaldehyde is removed effectively and that formaldehyde emissions are below published limits. The only instrumental method for formaldehyde monitoring is FTIR, following procedures such as US EPA Method 320 and Environment Agency TGN M22. Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically designed to follow these methods and our...
State-of-the-art systems enabling easy monitoring of CO2 and CH4 gases. Capped Landfill Sites produce a range of gases, mostly methane and carbon dioxide. Legislation requires that these gases are safely removed from beneath the cap to avoid a physical explosion due to the build-up of pressure beneath the cap. Safe disposal usually entails burning such as flare stacks, internal combustion engines or by processing to produce Methane gas fuel. For large sites with access to power distribution infrastructure...
The act of capturing and storing CO2 produced from large scale combustion plants such as power stations is becoming more and more favourable and feasible. One of the most common post-combustion CO2 capture methods is by absorption. The absorption plant can be added on to the existing combustion process, with the flue gas first passing through an absorption column where the CO2 reacts with an absorber. Amines of different types are used as the absorber. An amine CO2 capture plant can capture as much as 90% of the...
The aromatic content of gasoline determines many of its combustion properties. Since it also impacts the environmental characteristics of the fuel it is desirable to have accurate measurements of this parameter. The traditional analytical method for measuring aromatics is either gas chromatography (GC) or an older method entitled fluorescent indicator adsorption (FIA), both of which are time and labor intensive. This note will discuss the use of Guided Wave hardware and software tools for the measurement of %...
The Cetane number of a diesel fuel is a measure of the ignition properties and is an important specification that must be met during fuel production. The traditional laboratory method for Cetane number determination is the knock engine method in which the fuel is burned and its combustion characteristics compared to known standards. This method is time and labor intensive, and provides no ability for real time control of production. This note discusses the use of Guided Wave hardware and software tools for the...
Monitoring exhaust gas from combustion engines, emitting a large number of different compounds and with rapidly changing concentrations due to variations in operating conditions, necessitates an instrument that measures in real-time and with high sensitivity – an IONICON PTR-TOFMS.