The Road to Environmental Efficiency: Monitoring Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) and Hydrocarbons (CXHY) for Combustion Efficiency and Environmental Compliance.
Why Monitor Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)?
Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are toxic gases common to combustion processes that are highly regulated by state and federal Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA). Exceeding the environmental limit not only compromises worker health and safety, but may require supervisors to shut down a plant and/or pay a fine for noncompliance....
Accurate emissions monitoring from industrial processes is critical for determining overall system combustion effciency, environmental compliance and safety. However, there is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to proper emissions monitoring as each application encompasses different system considerations. The art of emissions monitoring and sampling requires:
The history of air pollution regulation dates back as far as the 13th century when in 1273, Edward I (Longshanks) of England prohibited the burning of sea coal in London. The smoke produced by its combustion was considered detrimental to human health.
By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, regulations were being passed that sought to control air pollution predominantly for smoke and odour control. Traditionally, regulators were concerned with the visual impact of the discharge from a stack or chimney. Therefore...
Many forklift trucks have internal combustion engines that burn propane, natural gas, diesel, or other fossil fuels. A portable combustion gas and emissions analyzer can be used to optimize combustion efficiency & maximize fuel savings, identify and quantify sources that can adversely affect safety and comfort in the work environment, and measure and reduce harmful emissions in the forklift engine exhuast gas.
The exhaust gas from combustion engines is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter. The composition of the gas may change rapidly. Multicomponent analysis of exhaust gases can be performed with a Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer with a response time (T90) of one second. The winning combination is the result using of a small volume gas sample cell, a powerful sample pump and a fast detector with liquid nitrogen cooling. The analyzer, sampling system and computer can be assembled on a cart for use in a...
Dekati has over 25 years of experience in providing measurement solutions for emission measurements. Today, our selection of measurement solutions for stationary source emission measurements include both real-time and gravimetric detection of concentration and particle size distribution. Our extensive line of sample conditioning devices enable not only environmental emission measurements but also measurements directly from the combustion zone and before heat exchangers and used flue gas cleaning devices. Dekati...
There are many types of stationary and mobile internal combustion engines that can run off gas or diesel fuels. Engines can be lean burning at a high air to fuel ratio (AFR) or rich burning at a low AFR. The exhaust stack gases from engines contain pollutant gases including CO, NO, NO2, NOx, and CxHy hydrocarbons as well as particulate matter. Measuring the engine exhaust emissions is important for engine tuning, performance optimization, safety, and proving emissions compliance to regulatory authorities.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of over 100 different chemicals that are known to be formed typically during incomplete combustion of organic matter at high temperature. Their major sources in the atmosphere include industrial processes, vehicle exhausts, waste incinerations, and domestic heating emissions. Due to their carcinogenic/mutagenic effects, 16 PAHs are currently listed as priority air pollutants.
Many large combustion plants are now required to monitor mass emissions of major pollutants and to do so requires an accurate measurement of stack gas velocity. The VCEM 5100 is certified to EN 15267 part 3 QAL 1 for all industrial processes including waste incineration. It has several key advantages, firstly the sensors optics are not in contact with the hot and dusty environment, the VCEM 5100 can monitor gases at temperatures exceeding 10000C and the analyser requires minimal maintenance. The VCEM 5100 can be...
A key issue in the measurement of the products of combustion in Cement and Lime industries is the high levels of particulates. The Procal 2000 in situ analyser`s heated probe option is especially suited to this industry as it efficiently deals with variations in process temperature, keeping the probe above the sample dew point and safe from corrosive condensate.
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is one of the main sources of air pollution, not only it has significant influence on global warming, but also involved in the destruction of the ozone layer. Technical measures to control NOx emissions can be divided into two categories: one is so-called source control, the characteristic is by a variety of technical means, to control NOx generation in the process of combustion reaction (i.e., low NOx combustion technology). Another kind is the so-called tail control, the characteristic is...
CO (carbon monoxide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide) are generally measured to ensure process control. CO2 is the desired product and CO is undesired in combustion since it will explode in high enough concentrations. CO2 and CO concentrations can also be used to determine other process-specific efficiencies. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment that can be calibrated as a CO and CO2 analyzer is thereby essential for process control.
There are many locations that should be measured and monitored with a portable emissions analyzer to maximize product quality, combustion efficiency, safety, and emissions reduction in a cement plant including the following:
Boiler combustion control, O2 and CO
DeNOx system, NH3 and NO
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP), CO monitoring for explosion prevention
Stack gas emissions, NH3, H2O, NO
Coal silos, CO monitoring for explosion prevention and detection of smouldering fires (only in coal fired plants)
Stack gas emission
Coal silo, explosion prevention
The combustion operations the iron and steel processes produce emissions which are subject to strict environmental regulations. Plants are required to monitor and control these emissions. This also provides process efficiency benefits.
In most combustion process atmospheric nitrogen reacts with oxygen in high temperature conditions to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Total NOx production is the sum of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. The emissions of these gases are controlled through setting of emission limit values (ELVs) for power plants.
Reciprocating internal combustion engines burning natural gas are a source of formaldehyde emissions. There are strict tolerances imposed on operators of engines to ensure that formaldehyde is removed effectively and that formaldehyde emissions are below published limits. The only instrumental method for formaldehyde monitoring is FTIR, following procedures such as US EPA Method 320 and Environment Agency TGN M22. Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically designed to follow these methods and our...
The act of capturing and storing CO2 produced from large scale combustion plants such as power stations is becoming more and more favourable and feasible. One of the most common post-combustion CO2 capture methods is by absorption. The absorption plant can be added on to the existing combustion process, with the flue gas first passing through an absorption column where the CO2 reacts with an absorber. Amines of different types are used as the absorber. An amine CO2 capture plant can capture as much as 90% of the...