Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater. Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organisation or by the European Union. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.
All surface waters contain varying amounts of naturally occurring organic acids. The most commonly encountered being tannic and humic. These substances have varying molecular weights and varying amounts of carboxylic functionality. There has been much interest in the removal of these substances from drinking water supplies due to their tendency to form THM`s when chlorinated. They can be removed effectively by use of anion exchange resins operated in the chloride cycle. Because the organics can be removed by...
Problem: Nitrate, the most stable form of nitrogen in water, is found in both ground and surface water and originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to its high solubility in water, nitrate is not filtered out from groundwater like other contaminants. Removing nitrates from source water is important as elevated levels in drinking water can cause serious health effects when ingested.
Groundwater is in contact with soil and rock minerals. Significant amounts of the minerals are dissolved in the groundwater. Elevated water hardness is the result of the water interaction and partial dissolution of carbonate minerals.
Scale formation is a crystallisation process. Crystals are a highly organised arrangement of molecules. The determining circumstances for a successful crystallisation event include concentration, temperature, pressure and chemical environment. Suitable conditions for the formation...
QUA’s CeraQ ceramic membrane modules
are designed for challenging water and
wastewater applications. The CeraQ
modules consist of 3.5 mm ID ceramic tubular
elements potted into bundles for various
surface area requirements. The module is
capable of removing virus, bacteria, colloidal
matter, submicron or micron sized suspended
particles, oil and organics from a wide range
of fluids, including drinking water and
industrial wastewater to economically meet
variety of treatment objectives or to recycle
The essential challenges of today are to ensure cost effective treatment and recycling processes for water and wastewater. Membrane technology solves this task by being an innovative and trendsetting technology. Today membranes are successfully used for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater as well as for the production of drinking and process water from surface water. Membrane technology and membrane bioreactors (MBR) are especially important in arid zones for the recovery of clean water for reuse...