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emission limit Applications

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    Fluoride emissions monitoring in aluminum smelters

    Production of aluminum from its ores at aluminum smelters results in carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, and hydrogen fluoride HF gas emissions during the electrolytic process phase to the atmosphere. The gas emissions need to be monitored. Typically the smelters have emission limit values (ELVs) for sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride emissions. These emissions should be measured accurately and with good precision, to ensure the smelter does not exceed its emission limit values. In addition several fluoride compounds may be produced in the electrolytic bath in the event of an oxygen shortage. These compounds include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, hexafluoroethane C2F6, sulfur hexafluoride SF6, and silicon tetrafluoride SiF4. These additional emission components are problematic, as they have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) values. The GWP is a relative measure designed to demonstrate how much heat a greenhouse gas (GHG) traps in the atmosphere. Emission of one kilogram of carbon tetrafluoride into the atmosphere today has the potential of heating the atmosphere as much as 7,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide over the next 100 years.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Continuous emissions monitoring for steel mills

    The nature of steel manufacturing processes places severe limitations on the monitoring methods that can be used. Aggressive environments combined with high levels of particulates and gases make the choice very limited.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

  • Marine emissions monitoring

    In recent years, new regulations have been introduced governing emissions from ships. With the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopting Annex VI of MARPOL designed to limit sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions, as well as introducing emission control areas (ECAs) to reduce emissions of those air pollutants further in designated sea areas, ship owners/operators can face hefty fines for failing to meet these new requirements on the “polluter pays” principle.

    By DynOptic Systems Ltd based in Brackley, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Extraction of many emission sources in extensive factory premises

    CTP achieved the continuous and individual ventilation of every work station and overall compliance with statutory limits, as well as the production of usable steam as a by-product of the excess heat.

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    Measurement solution for HF emissions from brickworks

    Brick kilns, as well as other plants such as ceramics manufacturers and fertiliser producers, are a major producer of hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions. HF is highly reactive gas and seriously damaging to human health, so has strict emissions limits imposed by legislation. In addition to the effects to humans, emissions have been found to damage crops and fruit trees, as well as the general environment. The brick industry strives to reduce the amount of HF emissions and numerous projects have been carried out into the research and development of proposed process modifications that introduce ways to reduce hydrogen fluoride emissions via the latest technology such as filters and scrubbers.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Emission control & air dedusting for steel and ferrous alloys

    teel and ferrous alloys production happens in industrial manufacturing processes which involve high temperature exhaust streams, often at more than 900 ºC. Typically, the gas flows into a gas conditioning tower to cool down to approximately 200 ºC, before entering into an ESP. These flue gases from steel or ferrous alloys kilns are also very maintenance demanding for bag filters and the very small size of the particles limit the use of usual dedusters such as regular cyclones and multicyclones as pre-separators. Bag filter failure is consequently a very common problem for clients in this industry. 

    Client`s needs include a very robust dedusting system, either serving as end-stage collector avoiding the need to cool down flue gases, or strongly minimizing the loads of aggressive material to bag filters. 

    By Advanced Cyclone Systems, S. A. based in Porto, PORTUGAL.

  • Opacity monitoring for continuous emissions

    The history of air pollution regulation dates back as far as the 13th century when in 1273, Edward I (Longshanks) of England prohibited the burning of sea coal in London. The smoke produced by its combustion was considered detrimental to human health. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, regulations were being passed that sought to control air pollution predominantly for smoke and odour control. Traditionally, regulators were concerned with the visual impact of the discharge from a stack or chimney. Therefore, emission limits were expressed in terms of colour or opacity. Modern methods for opacity measurement still use the darkness of the stack gases to measure the amount of smoke or dust emitted within the exhaust gases.

    By DynOptic Systems Ltd based in Brackley, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Particulate monitoring for continuous emissions

    With the advent of specific process emission limits being defined, continuous particulate monitoring has become a regulatory requirement for many industries. smoke stack #1Particulate monitoring requires the measurement of the mass concentration of particulate matter in stack emissions to atmosphere. There is no known method of continuously measuring particulate concentration by direct measurement and therefore, all continuous particulate measurement methods are inferential. Each method involves the measurement of a parameter related to particulate concentration and then requires a calibration to be determined to convert the measured value into one of particulate mass concentration.

    By DynOptic Systems Ltd based in Brackley, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for formaldehyde FTIR measurement

    Reciprocating internal combustion engines burning natural gas are a source of formaldehyde emissions. There are strict tolerances imposed on operators of engines to ensure that formaldehyde is removed effectively and that formaldehyde emissions are below published limits. The only instrumental method for formaldehyde monitoring is FTIR, following procedures such as US EPA Method 320 and Environment Agency TGN M22. Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically designed to follow these methods and our FTIR analyser have been proven in formaldehyde emission measurements over many years.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Waste to Energy

    We can treat the air streams from waste management plants, MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment) reception and composting areas, Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTP), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Plants, gasification of waste, syngas, torrefaction, gas engines and biogas upgrading. In waste management plants and WWTP, we remove the odors that may be causing a nuisance to neighbors, with bioreactors using Biomass to degrade odorous components and where odors are particularly intractable or VOC emissions higher, thermal oxidizers to meet prescribed emission limits and odor levels. In RDF Plants, Syngas, Gasification, Gas Engine and Biogas Upgrading applications, we employ thermal oxidizers, particulate removal and DeNOX systems, for the control of VOC, NOx, CO and particulates to prescribed emission limits.

    By Babcock & Wilcox MEGTEC based in De Pere, WISCONSIN (USA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for flavoring agents

    Manufacturing of powdered and liquid flavorings and fragrances involves production phases where flavoring chemicals may be released into the ambient air breathed by workers. Exposure control by gas analyzers in the production rooms and laboratories is necessary to ensure that the Time-Weighted Average (TWA) concentrations do not exceed the maximum Permissible Emission Limit (PEL) values.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for DeNOx process control

    In most combustion process atmospheric nitrogen reacts with oxygen in high temperature conditions to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Total NOx production is the sum of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2. The emissions of these gases are controlled through setting of emission limit values (ELVs) for power plants.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Hazardous waste treatment solutions for oil and gas industry

    There are a wide amount of applications for our VacuDry® process within the oil and gas industry. A large variety of wastes and by-products that are generated in the oil & gas production chain can be treated effectively and sustainably. In past decades, numerous thermal desorption processes have been implemented worldwide, using a variety of heating chamber designs to separate hydrocarbons from the mineral solids. Such standard TDUs work under atmospheric pressure which can lead to safety risks, high energy consumption, larger emissions and limited flexibility regarding altering feed materials. Due to its unique design, the complications outlined above are avoided throughout the VacuDry® process. When it comes to treating standard oily wastes, mercury-containing waste streams, NORM, and especially for the recovery of highly valuable drilling fluids from drill cuttings; our vacuum thermal desorption process (i.e. vacuum distillation) is economically unbeatable.

    By econ industries GmbH based in Starnberg, GERMANY.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for nitric acid process

    Modern production method of nitric acid production may lead to generation of several different gaseous emission components, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia NH3 and nitrous oxide N2O. Nitrogen monoxide is an intermediate gaseous product in manufacturing of nitric acid HNO3. NO is formed in a catalytic reaction between ammonia and molecular oxygen O2. But undesirable side reactions may result in formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 and nitrous oxide N2O. The NO and NO2 emissions can be reduced by use of Selective Catalytic Reduction unit (SCR), which deploys ammonia gas NH3 to limit emissions of NO and NO2. A modern nitric acid plant needs to monitor the emissions of these gases.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Environmental Reporting

    The Q EHS Environmental Reporting suite provides key tools for compliance with environmental legislation pertaining to the management, storage, use release, and disposal of hazardous materials. The software was developed to produce a variety of practical reports such as: • Performance and compliance assessments • Regulatory report submittals • Metrics and trend analyses for facility, divisional, and corporate management • On-site environmental incident occurrences Q EHS Air - Q EHS Waste - Q EHS Water - Q EHS Hazardous Materials Allow you to: • Associate and roll up usage data to appropriate unit - Business - Group - Sector - Division - Geographic - User-defined parameter • Estimate expected and potential emissions from various sources • Establish operating limits for automated checks and warning messages

    By Quantum Compliance based in Ann Arbor, MICHIGAN (USA).

  • Secundary air flow measurement for power generation industry

    Secondary Air Flow Overview: The need for accurate, repeatable & reliable combustion air measurements in power generation plants is critical to efficient operation and safety throughout the entire facility and processes. Accurate secondary air flow measurement to the burners is critical for maintaining the proper air to fuel ratio, result­ing in more complete and stable combustion, better performance and lower emissions. Coal-fired power plant applications pose a number of challenges to obtaining these critical flow measurements including large ducts, limited metering runs, poor velocity and temperature profiles, vibration and high temperatures.

    By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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