Oil wells almost always produce natural gas (“associated gas”) along with the petroleum. In many cases, it is uneconomical to process due to heavy contamination. As a consequence, this gas is combusted, “flared” or simply vented as-is during upset conditions in the process. Newly updated EPA regulations like 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO (also known as Quad O) as well as the new RSR MACT rule for refineries, requires oil & gas companies to report the flare gas emitted to our atmosphere. Monitoring the fuel at the inlet of the flare is part of meeting these EPA requirements. Our QuadraTherm thermal mass flow meters with qMix gas mixing software are ideal for flare and combustion gas measurement.
By Sierra Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).
GeoSpec2 instruments fitted with Pulsed Field Gradients (pfg) are able to carry out measurements dependent on the diffusion, flow, or distribution of the fluids within the core sample. One application is for fluid typing. It is possible that different fluids, such as heavy oils and partially bound water, may exhibit similar T2 values, which makes it difficult to identify which fluid is which using a standard T2 distribution. However, even if they have similar T2 values they are unlikely also to have similar diffusion characteristics, so a measurement that collects both T2 and diffusion data should in principle be able to separate the fluid types. GIT Systems software, together with a pfg accessory on a GeoSpec2 NMR instrument, enables such measurements to be done. The result is a two-dimensional data map illustrating the relative proportions of the different fluid types in the sample.
By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.
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