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fossil fuel use Applications

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    Reliable Shredding Technology for Refuse Derived Fuels (RDF)

    Our shredding solutions enable you to optimally recycle waste into substitute fuels / alternative fuels and ensure high quality by producing a homogeneous granulate free of foreign objects. The goal of recycling is to use the valuable energy contained in the waste and to substitute the use of fossil fuels. During the recycling process the portions with a high calorific value are separated from the commercial and industrial waste and turned into a marketable product. Depending on the calorific value and the granular size, these fuels are used in fluidised bed combustion, cement plants and substitute fuel power plants.

    By UNTHA Shredding Technology based in Kuchl, AUSTRIA.

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    Measurement solution for hydrogen fuel cell testing

    As the alternatives to fossil fuels for power generation and automotive power become more widespread and preferred, so has increased the research and testing of hydrogen gas in fuel cells. The hydrogen (H2) gas used in fuel cell has to be free of impurities in order to make the fuel cell as efficient as possible and so quality thresholds have been set in legislation. Such legislation as SAE J2719 provides hydrogen fuel quality standards for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. If impurities above these thresholds are present in the H2 fuel then there is a risk of not only making the cell inefficient, but also unrecoverable back to its peak operating voltage as the fuel cell electrode becomes poisoned.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Recycling waste oil into a resuable fuel for waste & recycling industry

    With the increasing requirement to reduce or recycle products, used lubricating oils obtained from automobiles, large plant equipment, generators etc. are collected and sent to a facility to recycle the waste oil product into a reusable fuel. This fuel can be used by power stations and other facilities to reduce their usage of original and more expensive fossil fuel.

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Air Pollution Control Solution for the FGD - SO2

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) involves the removal of sulfur dioxide and other acids from flue gases. Typical sources of acid gases include fossil fuel boilers, waste combustors, and other industrial applications such as refining and smelting. The Macrotek wet and dry FGD systems can achieve over 99% acid removal by using a variety of reagents, including caustic, sodium carbonate, lime and limestone, and waste alkaline solids or liquids.

    By Macrotek Inc. based in Markham, ONTARIO (CANADA).

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    Water Monitoring and Flow Measurement Systems for Water Power

    Hydro power contributes to supplying approximately 3,5 per cent of electric energy generated worldwide. Its share in power generation from renewable resources lies at 18 per cent and will continue to grow as resources of fossil fuels are depleted. Hydro electric performance depends essentially on the usable altitude difference between upper and lower reservoir, and hence the resulting water flow. In order to use the “fuel” water in an optimal way, the flow velocity has to be monitored without any interruptions. Ultrasonic flow meters, flow sensors and clamp-on flow meters (OR clamp-on technology) are ideal for accurate flow metering and flow monitoring.

    By HydroVision GmbH based in Kaufbeuren, GERMANY.

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    Water treatment for power plants

    The process of electricity generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas is water-intensive. Between 40-50% of all water abstracted and used in developed countries is used in the generation of electricity. Thus, a reliable, abundant and predictable source of raw water supply to a power plant is a critical factor in site selection. Water supplies are required to provide various process waters for the following essential main purposes such as make-up water, cooling water for steam turbine condensers, and auxiliary plant cooling water.

    The primary application of modern water treatment technology is to maintain the integrity and performance of the power plant. Critical plant applications have water purity or conditioning requirements that must be adhered to for safe, reliable and efficient power generation.

    Experience has shown that integration of water technology treatments with power plant design can be very important in reducing operational problems and component failures 

    At power plant worldwide there are increasing limitations on water availability and environmental restrictions on discharges. This is expected to promote measures for water conservation and to have an increasing influence on water treatment decisions. At power plant, the recycling of internal wastewater streams can extend from the recovery of individual high-quality waste streams, which can be reused either directly or after only limited treatment, through to the development of fully integrated water/wastewater treatment systems for zero liquid discharge. However, the application of reuse schemes requires site-specific assessment, as not all waters may be viable options for recovery.

    By De Nora Water Technologies based in Colmar, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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    Gas Sensing for Gasification

    Syngas (short for synthetic gas) can be burnt and used as a fuel source, the main constituents of syngas are Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen (H), which amount for around 85% of Syngas, and it is produced by a process called Gasification. Gasification starts with a base material which can originate from a wide variety of materials for example wood chips and pellets, plastics, municipal solid waste, sewage, waste crops, and fossil fuels such as coal. During Gasification the base material is reacted at high temperature without combustion with controlled amounts of oxygen (O) or steam. The composition of the base material combined with the amount of oxygen and heat used in the process affects the composition of the resultant SynGas, in which the CO can vary between around 20 and 60%. In addition, large amounts of H and CO are also formed. The measurement of CO is therefore an important feature in the production of SynGas.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Wastewater treatment solutions for anaerobic sludge digestion sector

    Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy. It is widely used as part of the process to treat wastewater, like Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. As part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere. Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate which is also produced can be used as fertilizer. The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to break down insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates and make them available for other bacteria. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide.

    By QM Environmental Services Ltd. based in The Hague, NETHERLANDS.

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