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ftir gas Applications

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    Measurement solution for FTIR Vs. GC in gas analysis

    Comparison of Technologies

    A gas chromatograph (GC) has traditionally been the technology of choice for laboratory analysis of gas samples. GCs have been used for over 50 years in the qualification and quantification of complex mixtures of gases. The techniques and methodology required to run GCs are often a pre-requisite for any laboratory technician. Recent developments in Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) gas analysis has enabled this technology to start to replace GCs in the lab.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for formaldehyde FTIR measurement

    Reciprocating internal combustion engines burning natural gas are a source of formaldehyde emissions. There are strict tolerances imposed on operators of engines to ensure that formaldehyde is removed effectively and that formaldehyde emissions are below published limits. The only instrumental method for formaldehyde monitoring is FTIR, following procedures such as US EPA Method 320 and Environment Agency TGN M22. Protea’s FTIR gas analysers have been specifically designed to follow these methods and our FTIR analyser have been proven in formaldehyde emission measurements over many years.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for complex, real-time VOC measurement with atmosFIR FTIR gas analyser platform

    Introduction

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a group of organic compounds which have a low vapour pressure at room temperature, meaning that they will readily evaporate into the surrounding air. The term VOC refers to many different classes of organic compounds such as alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics and many more.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for siloxane measurement in land-fill gas via FTIR

    What are siloxanes?

    The generation of electricity from municipal digesters and land fill is of increasing interest, as the biogas generated is a form of renewable energy. Organosilicon compounds are often present in products such as shampoo and cosmetics, as well as industrial products and lubricants, and they move into land-fill. These volatile compounds find their way into land-fill or digester gases as siloxanes.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for total VOC via FTIR

    Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is a common measurement required from industrial emissions. Commonly, a single measurement value is obtained through the use of a Flame Ionisation Detection (FID) analyser. The pyrolysis of the gas stream in a FID analyser allows it to make a measurement of the carbon content of the gas stream. FID analyser cannot indicate the relative abundances of different organic species in a gas stream and often have widely different responses for different gases. However, they are taken as the standard reference method for Total VOC emission measurements.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for measuring total VOC via FTIR

    Current Total VOC Measurements

    The most common, and current standard, method for measuring Total Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) is the use of a Flamed Ionisation Detector (FID). This gives a representative value of the total carbon content of a gas stream, as the FID cannot tell which specific organic compounds are present.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for soil chamber gas flux

    Closed chamber gas flux measurements can be made with Protea FTIR analysers to allow researchers in the field of atmospheric gas analysis from agricultural and livestock to measure evolved gases such as N2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and Methane (CH4) emissions from soil, plant and livestock are especially important gases to measure, given their high potential as greenhouse gases (GHGs). NH3, whilst not a greenhouse gas on the scale of N2O, CH4 and CO2, is a major emission from agricultural, such as after the spreading of liquid manure, and steps are required to measure and reduce the NH3 emissions and the effects they have on the ecosystem.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for engine emissions measurements

    The exhaust gas from combustion engines is a complex mixture of gases and particulate matter. The composition of the gas may change rapidly. Multicomponent analysis of exhaust gases can be performed with a Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer with a response time (T90) of one second. The winning combination is the result using of a small volume gas sample cell, a powerful sample pump and a fast detector with liquid nitrogen cooling. The analyzer, sampling system and computer can be assembled on a cart for use in a dynamometer laboratory, or the portable version can be used for roadside tests.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for HAZMAT

    Accidents involving chemicals and other hazardous materials require fast and accurate gas measurements as part of the first response. The Gasmet™ DX4040 portable FTIR Gas Analyzer provides reliable identification and concentration measurements of hazardous gases in 60 seconds or less.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for combustion efficiency sector

    CIC Photonics has made its mark with several R&D institutes where research is underway to determine the optimum thermodynamic performance of new turbine engine designs combined with new diesel fuel formulations. This sophisticated IRGAS technology has included not only a basic FTIR gas analyzer but also analyzers for H2, O2, THC, and a powder meter all integrated into a comprehensive IRGAS Solution.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for semiconductor manufacturing

    In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, various perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used. The emissions of the PFC compounds into the ambient air are reduced by scrubbing of the exhaust gases from the process. In this process, the Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzers can be used to measure the emissions into the atmosphere and also monitor the efficiency of the scrubbers. Typically monitored PFCs in the exhaust gas include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, trifluoromethane CHF3, and hexafluoroethane C2F6.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for R & D industry

    Universities and research institutes, including federal agencies and laboratories, regularly call upon CIC Photonics to custom design and fabricate gas cells and FTIR gas analyzers for innovative research studies. Their research spans a range from the synthesis of new chemicals to spectroscopy of the universe. Hence, their requirements often demand the complete utilization of the company’s staffing skills in physical chemistry, chemical engineering, optics, mechanical engineering, and electronic engineering, as well as computer programming.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for process NOx measurement

    Nitric acid HNO3 is an important intermediate reagent for production of several important end products, such as fertilizers, explosives, dyestuffs/pigments, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic materials, plastics, and synthetic fibers. At nitric acid manufacturing plants, the Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzer can be used to measure several gaseous components from the process stream for purposes of process control. A single system can be used to measure the high levels of nitrogen monoxide NO and nitrogen dioxide NO2, as well as water vapor H2O, nitrous oxide N2O, carbon monoxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2 and ammonia NH3. The fixed installation products for these purposes are the Gasmet™ CEM II measurement system, and the Gasmet™ FCX Gas Analyzers, both of which utilize the FTIR measurement technique for simultaneous multicomponent analysis of the sample gas.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for phosgene monitoring

    Phosgene COCl2 is a colorless gas. While it has been used as a Chemical Weapon Agent (CWA) in the past, currently this poisonous gas is also an important reagent in synthesis in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The plants using phosgene are typically equipped with gas sensors to detect leaks in the indoor ambient air. The critical situations arise when equipment in contact with the gas at the manufacturing facilities are serviced and maintained. As phosgene is very poisonous, even small gas pockets in serviced equipment may be dangerous to maintenance personnel. Gasmet™ FTIR Gas Analyzers are ideal tools to monitor point sources of phosgene. The measurement technology has high specificity, may be operated continuously, and has a fast response time.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for stack testing according to EPA test method 320

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has two stack testing methods for FTIR gas analyzers. Method 320 is an FTIR method for measuring wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants. Method 321 is a specific version for measuring hydrogen chloride HCl at cement kilns producing Portland cement. These methods define a quality assurance and control processes for verifying the accuracy of the results. The requirements for analytical equipment and software are defined on 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix B Performance Specification 15. Gasmet™ Gas Analyzers and Calcmet™ software have been designed to take the requirements of the performance specification into account.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Integrated real-time gas analysis solution for moisture in ammonia industry

    The highest purity of ammonia is a requisite chemical gas for the production of flat panel displays and for LEDs; the purity issue is one of achieving moisture levels at the ppb level, as in the case of epitaxial reactor applications. However, the problem requiring a solution derives in part from the fact that the FTIR spectra for moisture and ammonia overlap to the degree that the moisture peaks are masked by the ammonia peaks at high concentrations. As a result the moisture peaks cannot be used for quantitative concentration measurements.

    By CIC Photonics, Inc. based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Measurement solution for WID Emissions Monitoring

    Protea is the most experienced company in the UK in using FTIR gas analyser to measure emissions. Through running a UKAS-accredited test house and being a manufacturer of gas analysers, we have been involved in FTIR as a supplier and end-user for 10 years.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for multi-stream combustion research

    Protea supplied a complete turn-key measuring system for multi-point sampling in a University combustion research laboratory. Utilising the latest in FTIR spectroscopy, atmosFIR, a complete cabinet system was supplied containing: atmosFIR FTIR Gas analyser, Sampling System Control Module (SSCM), Heated Stream Selection Module (HSSM), Temperature Control Module (TCM), 4 heated sample lines, 4 heated sample probes, Embedded PC controller.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for organic vapour speciation

    Protea has deployed FTIR gas analysers in many projects requiring the monitoring of complex mixes of VOCs. In the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, scrubbers and carbon-bed abatement plants are typical installations where the use of Protea FTIR analysers and our chemometric expertise have proved valuable to plant operators. They prove an invaluable tool in process measurements and emissions monitoring. In the laboratory, Protea can deliver instruments with all the chemometric software and support to enable users to measure hundreds of gases.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for fire testing for the railway industry

    A lot of research is carried out in laboratory and on real fires as to the gaseous substances produced in fire effluent. Measurement principles using analytical instrumentation are becoming more widely used in fire testing, due to the quick, real-time nature of the measurements. ISO 19702 is an international standard developed for the use of FTIR analysers in the analysis of gas from fire effluents. Further to this, local test standards such as DIN 5510, applicable to the railway industry, can provide further requirements for gases to be measured.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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