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global warming Applications

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    Measurement solution for Perflurocarbon (PFC) emissions from aluminium industry

    The aluminium industry is the major source of perflurocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere, which are a major contributor to global warming. PFCs have greenhouse gas effects up to 10000 times that of CO2. Emissions have been reduced over the last 20 years, but further reductions are harder to achieve as all the mechanisms for PFC production are not known. In order to better understand the production of PFC on an industrial level, laboratory studies have been carried out using a small scale cell.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Air pollution control for the energy recovery industry

    Rising fuel and electric costs, along with global warming concerns have changed the way industrial facilities regard energy consumption. Process equipment and air pollution control systems installed several years ago may not reflect the new energy conscious designs available today. We recommend analyzing these systems periodically to determine energy reduction opportunities. Recovering waste heat is one of the easiest and most utilized means of reducing energy demands at industrial facilities.

    By Anguil Environmental Systems, Inc. based in Milwaukee, WISCONSIN (USA).

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    Air pollution control for ventilation air methane industry

    Ventilation Air Methane (VAM) is a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) released by coal or mineral mining operations, it is also commonly known as Coal Mine Methane (CMM).  The air pollutants from this process have a global warming potential 21 times greater than carbon dioxide, which is another well known GHG.  As alternative energy technologies have developed, methane is increasingly used to generate electricity and heat.  Landfills and mines represent two of the most abundant sources, however reports indicate that more than 50% of all VAM is exhausted from mine ventilation systems and remains unutilized.

    By Anguil Environmental Systems, Inc. based in Milwaukee, WISCONSIN (USA).

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    Fluoride emissions monitoring in aluminum smelters

    Production of aluminum from its ores at aluminum smelters results in carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, and hydrogen fluoride HF gas emissions during the electrolytic process phase to the atmosphere. The gas emissions need to be monitored. Typically the smelters have emission limit values (ELVs) for sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride emissions. These emissions should be measured accurately and with good precision, to ensure the smelter does not exceed its emission limit values. In addition several fluoride compounds may be produced in the electrolytic bath in the event of an oxygen shortage. These compounds include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, hexafluoroethane C2F6, sulfur hexafluoride SF6, and silicon tetrafluoride SiF4. These additional emission components are problematic, as they have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) values. The GWP is a relative measure designed to demonstrate how much heat a greenhouse gas (GHG) traps in the atmosphere. Emission of one kilogram of carbon tetrafluoride into the atmosphere today has the potential of heating the atmosphere as much as 7,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide over the next 100 years.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

  • Aerosol Research

    The Earth is warmed principally by the sun’s radiation which enters the atmosphere. However, not all the radiation penetrates the atmosphere as some is scattered back into space. The amount of back-scattering into space alters the amount of energy that is absorbed into the atmosphere. backscattering of this energy provides valuable information on the change of the earth’s radiation balance and how different activities (artificial and anthropogenic) can affect this delicately balanced system and thus influence global warming

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Waste gas treatment for the semiconductor industry

    In the early 1990s no appropriate and comprehensive technical solution had been available for waste gas treatment in the semiconductor industry. Back then as well as today many industrial and research production procedures use process gases and generate waste gases. These waste gases, considered greenhouse gases, are toxic and/or highly flammable and very often pose a significant risk to production facilities and the environment. The semiconductor industry, for instance, uses perfluorocarbons, whose global warming potential is extremely high and therefore requires an efficient waste gas treatment. Combining and transporting different gases into a fab’s central waste gas system might produce highly flammable and highly explosive gaseous mixtures, which in the past has occasionally caused the total loss of entire production facilities. Particles contained within gases may also cause exhaust blockages. To eliminate these risks, process waste gases need to be treated at the “Point-of-Use” (POU) where harmful exhausts are abated immediately.

    By DAS Environmental Expert GmbH based in Dresden, GERMANY.

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