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groundwater characterization Applications

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    Site characterization for development

    Site characterization for development.

    By Advanced Geosciences, Inc. based in Austin, TEXAS (USA).

  • Groundwater Resource Management Applications

    Water agencies and private water companies are tasked with the challenge of developing and maintaining sustainable water supplies, often centered on groundwater. Since 1987, the Westbay System has provided water managers with the flexibility to characterize groundwater in four-dimensions, leading to the optimization of management activities and the development of sustainable management practices.

    By Westbay Instruments based in Burnaby, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

  • Geotechnical Applications

    Pore pressure variability and control is one of the most significant aspects of Geotechnical Engineering practice related to slope stability, underground openings, foundation of heavy structures, and water retention facilities. Pore pressure effects are most often controlled by natural small-scale hydrogeologic details. Characterization and management of pore pressures requires closely-arrayed repeated measurements to determine the effects of these details for design of appropriate mitigation measures, for performance monitoring and control of the selected mitigation measure. Since the late 1970’s the Westbay System has been used on some of the largest landslide studies in the world.

    By Westbay Instruments based in Burnaby, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

  • Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology for Stream Monitoring

    Temperature is an important factor in streams ecosystems. Heat tracers have been used to characterize contaminant transport, infiltration rates and energy exchange with groundwater, the atmosphere and radiation. The dynamics of these complicated water bodies is also affected by seasonal and diurnal patterns making characterization particularly challenging. Utilizing temperature measurements that capture spatial and temporal variations at stream ecosystem interfaces provides a mechanism for detailed characterization.

    By Silixa Ltd based in Elstree, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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