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groundwater discharge Applications

  • Groundwater Monitoring for Remediation

    Many fresh water sources have been degraded to toxic levels by the inclusion of industrial, agricultural, and human waste products that have been discharged into the closest body of water, accidentally or deliberately for many years.

    By HERON Instruments Inc. based in Dundas, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • Decanter centrifuge for drilling mud solids control

    Decanter centrifuge is used as the 4th phase solids control equipment after shaker, desander and desilter. The centrifuge suck the mud from the compartment receiving the discharge from the desilters and mud cleaners, and the returned stream is directed to the next compartment downstream. The use of decanter centrifuge with the drilling mud is (1) removal fine solids from unweighted fluids (2) selection separation of colloidal and ultra-fine solids from weighted fluids to improve their flow properties.

    By GN Decanter Centrifuge Ltd based in Hebei, CHINA.

  • Issues related to permitting of Special Water Use

    • Preparation and maintenance support of documentation for obtaining a Special Water Use Permit*, which is issued by the Departments of Ecology and Natural Resources of the regional state administrations of Ukraine; • Calculation of individual current standards (technological, balance sheet standards) of water consumption; • Help in execution of state statistical reporting forms: 7-gr (groundwater) and 2-TP (water industry); • Development of project of standards for maximum permissible discharges (MPD) of pollutants from reverse waters into water bodies.

    By PP `Tehnologia O` based in Vinnytsia, UKRAINE.

  • Dye Tracing

    Monitoring the dilution and movement of a tracer introduced into the water column provides an excellent means of determining the path that may be followed by a discharge and the rate at which dilution is likely to take place. Fluorescent dyes such as Rhodamine, Fluorescein or Agma are the most frequently used tracers for such investigations. Chelsea Technologies has been providing dye tracing systems for over 30 years. Typical applications include sub-sea pipeline leak detection, pollution studies, natural water flow analysis (rivers, lakes, ocean currents, cave water flows, groundwater filtration etc), sewer and storm water drainage analysis. The Chelsea systems can be configured for a wide variety of tracers, are highly sensitive, robust, and deliver real-time data. They can be moored, profiled, towed or affixed to ROV / AUV platforms.

    By Chelsea Technologies Group based in West Molesey, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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