As the alternatives to fossil fuels for power generation and automotive power become more widespread and preferred, so has increased the research and testing of hydrogen gas in fuel cells. The hydrogen (H2) gas used in fuel cell has to be free of impurities in order to make the fuel cell as efficient as possible and so quality thresholds have been set in legislation. Such legislation as SAE J2719 provides hydrogen fuel quality standards for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. If impurities above these thresholds are present in the H2 fuel then there is a risk of not only making the cell inefficient, but also unrecoverable back to its peak operating voltage as the fuel cell electrode becomes poisoned.
By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.
Energy comprises many types of modes by using complex processes to explore, extract, refine, produce and transport these products. The energy industry comprises: Fossil fuels: coal, petroleum and natural gas (conventional as well as hydraulic fracturing), including liquid propane gas and liquid natural gas. Non fossil fuels such as: hydroelectric, battery technology, hydrogen fuel cells, nuclear power. Renewable fuels such as: biofuels, hydrogen fuel cells, geothermal, solar (photovoltaic). Nuclear power.
By Shimadzu Scientific Instruments Inc based in Columbia, MARYLAND (USA).
Flue gas particulate and acid gases from biomass and bagasse boilers. Removal of ethanol, CO2 scrubbers and yeast cells from fermenters. Removal of ash particulate, tars, acid gases and ammonia from steam reformers, gasifiers, pyrolosis units and cooling of syngas streams to acceptable limits to enable use as a fuel source for power generation or as a feedstock for chemical products. For tar removal, combination technologies can be used including oil based scrubbing solutions to reduce waste water generation. Ethanol and yeast cell removal from fermenter off-gases. Methanol from processing operations. Hydrogen sulfide removal on landfill, digester and producer gases with regenerable chemistries. Odor control for biomass storage facilities including carbon monoxide removal in wood chip storage areas.
By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).
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