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hydrogen generator Applications

  • Moisture Monitoring for Hydrogen Cooled Electricity Generators

    Hydrogen is used to cool large, stationary generators because of its high heat capacity and low viscosity, and must be kept dry to maintain both of these properties. Ambient moisture is considered a contaminant, which will reduce the heat capacity and increase the viscosity of the cooling hydrogen.

    By Moisture Control & Measurement Ltd based in Wetherby, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement solution for hydrogen fuel cell testing

    As the alternatives to fossil fuels for power generation and automotive power become more widespread and preferred, so has increased the research and testing of hydrogen gas in fuel cells. The hydrogen (H2) gas used in fuel cell has to be free of impurities in order to make the fuel cell as efficient as possible and so quality thresholds have been set in legislation. Such legislation as SAE J2719 provides hydrogen fuel quality standards for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. If impurities above these thresholds are present in the H2 fuel then there is a risk of not only making the cell inefficient, but also unrecoverable back to its peak operating voltage as the fuel cell electrode becomes poisoned.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Odor Scrubbers Applications with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution. Step 1: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O Step 2: 4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when used in place of bleach, one gallon 50% H2O2 for every 10 gallons of 15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). This generally translates into a break-even cost scenario. Sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) is added to maintain a pH of 10.0 - 10.5 in the scrubbing solution. There is also in practice a process which uses H2O2 in series with bleach to scrub composting odors. This process relies on a series of three packed tower scrubbers: the first is a pH neutral water wash (to remove ammonia and amine odors); the second uses a conventional caustic/bleach solution in which the bleach is purposely overdosed (to oxidize the complex organic sulfur odors); and the third uses a caustic/H2O2 solution (to remove the unreacted chlorine vapors carried over from the second stage). H2O2 + HOCl → HCl + H2O + O2 Typical dose ratios are 0.5 parts H2O2 per part hypochlorite (OCl-), with sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) added to maintain a pH of 8.5 in the scrubbing solution.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Force Main Systems Sulfide Odor Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Force main systems are typically high sulfide odor generators due to septicity conditions related to full pipe flow and a greater anaerobic slime layer (biofilm) thickness. Primary factors that influence sulfide loading generation in a force main include sewage temperature, BOD, retention time, pipe size and flow. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) release at the force main discharge is usually the main concern related to odor and corrosion control needs; however, corrosion problems within the pipe can be of a concern (e.g. "crown cutting") at locations where air pockets can lead to concentrated H2S gas build up. Some basic considerations for assessing an appropriate sulfide odor treatment method for force main systems include: Retention time / duration of control Pump station type / cycling (e.g. vfd; start/stop, etc). Force main injection tap points, if any (e.g. air relief valves) Existence of intermediate re-lift stations or in series pump stations Manifold force main systems

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Headworks Odor and Corrosion Control Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide typically controls odors and corrosion at treatment plant headworks by direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) within the wastewater. In the direct oxidation mode, H2O2 is applied to the wastewater 5-30 minutes prior to the point where the odors are being released, generally as the wastewater line enters the plant boundary. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide treatment depends upon the available reaction time, the level of iron in the wastewater (reaction catalyst), wastewater pH and temperature, and the initial and target levels of H2S odor. Under optimal conditions, effective dose ratios are 1.2 - 1.5 parts H2O2 per part dissolved sulfide, and can be reliably estimated through beaker tests. H2O2 + H2S → S0 + 2H2O Frequently, control of odors through the primary clarifiers is wanted. In such case, the mechanism of control is both direct oxidation of H2S (as it rises from the solids blanket), and prevention of odor generation (by supplying dissolved oxygen). Control is typically achieved with a booster dose of 1-2 mg/L H2O2 added to the clarifier influent. Higher doses or alternate modes of addition may be required in cases where: 1) hydraulic retention times are > 2-3 hours; 2) solids blanket depths are > 1-2 feet; 3) soluble BOD levels are > 200-300 mg/L; or 4) waste activated sludge is co-settled with the primary solids. 2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Gravity Main Sulfide Odor Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Gravity main sewer systems include major trunk lines and the tributaries that feed them. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odor builds up in the collections system as the flows collect from upstream reaches and become larger, deeper and more septic (oxygen depleted) in the downstream reaches more near to the wastewater treatment plant. In general, most of the more significant hydrogen sulfide odor and corrosion control problems occur in the major trunk systems segments conveying flow to the plant. Therefore, selection of sulfide treatment for gravity systems has several options depending mainly on: Duration of control required Degree of septicity (oxygen depletion) Location of target control points or "hot spots" Location of available dosing points upstream of "hot spots" Availability of civil infrastructure and utilities Sensitivity to hazardous chemicals

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Continuous emissions monitoring in cement kilns

    Various pollutants form in the cement manufacturing process, especially when alternative fuels and waste-derived fuels are used. Typically a cement kiln using these fuels is a required to monitor hydrogen chloride (HCl). Gasmet CEM II is EN 15267-3 approved for HCl measurement in 0 … 15 mg/Nm3 range.High process temperatures result in generation of more nitrogen oxides (NOx) than in typical municipal waste incineration.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Measurement solution for HF emissions from brickworks

    Brick kilns, as well as other plants such as ceramics manufacturers and fertiliser producers, are a major producer of hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions. HF is highly reactive gas and seriously damaging to human health, so has strict emissions limits imposed by legislation. In addition to the effects to humans, emissions have been found to damage crops and fruit trees, as well as the general environment. The brick industry strives to reduce the amount of HF emissions and numerous projects have been carried out into the research and development of proposed process modifications that introduce ways to reduce hydrogen fluoride emissions via the latest technology such as filters and scrubbers.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Biomass Industry

    Flue gas particulate and acid gases from biomass and bagasse boilers. Removal of ethanol, CO2 scrubbers and yeast cells from fermenters.  Removal of ash particulate, tars, acid gases and ammonia from steam reformers, gasifiers, pyrolosis units and cooling of syngas streams to acceptable limits to enable use as a fuel source for power generation or as a feedstock for chemical products. For tar removal, combination technologies can be used including oil based scrubbing solutions to reduce waste water generation. Ethanol and yeast cell removal from fermenter off-gases. Methanol from processing operations. Hydrogen sulfide removal on landfill, digester and producer gases with regenerable chemistries. Odor control for biomass storage facilities including carbon monoxide removal in wood chip storage areas. 

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Industrial Solution for metallurgical, mining & chemical

    Hydrometallurgical extraction of metals such as Nickel and Cobalt generate emissions of lethal gases such as Hydrogen Sulphide or Hydrogen Chloride. Macrotek has designed and supplied many systems to capture and treat these gases. In most cases the by-product is returned back to the process for reuse. Pyrometallurgical extraction of metals from sulphur containing ores generate large amounts of SO2 and particulate emissions. Macrotek has designed integrated systems to capture particulate and neutralizes SO2.

    By Macrotek Inc. based in Markham, ONTARIO (CANADA).

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    Gas Detection Solutions for Aluminium

    Primary aluminium smelting generates large amounts of hydrogen fluoride gas (HF). Worker safety and ambient air quality concerns require that HF be monitored at several locations in smelters. Traditionally, a variety of chemical sampling methods have been used for HF monitoring in and around smelters. However, these methods are labour intensive and require ongoing maintenance and consumables. During the past decade, laser based HF analyzers have been replacing the traditional methods. Laser analyzers are compact, robust and reliable and provide accurate HF data. Fast response times that enable easy correlation of high HF emissions with work practices.

    By Boreal Laser Inc. based in Edmonton, ALBERTA (CANADA).

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    Determination of TOC in stack

    PROBLEM: The industrial chimney's emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are becoming issues of global importance and to have an accurate knowledge about how to test VOC turns into a strategic issue. VOC emissions are quantified and monitored according to standard EN 12619, using FID analyser which uses hydrogen and other reference gases in pressurized cylinder. Operators must then approach the sampling point, often placed several meters from the ground, climbing chimneys of industrial settlements with instruments and cylinders. Is it possible making this job easier and safer? SOLUTION: Using the Polaris FID analyser produced by Pollution Srl, Italy, it is possible to carry out the VOCs monitoring according to EN 12619 without lifting accessories and heavy weights typically involved with FID analyser. Polaris FID analyser complies with this standard regulation but what is really a breakthrough and cutting-edge, is the unmatched portability and the next generation technology

    By Pollution Srl based in Budrio, ITALY.

  • Alternative Fuel Production

    Superior Boiler Works, Inc. led the way in Ethanol production in the USA with more installed firetube boilers in Ethanol plants than any other manufacturer. Ethanol requires the distillation of sugars into an alcohol fuel. Superior’s products are used to generate heat needed for the ethanol distillation processes, heating storage tanks as well as batch reactors. Additionally, Superior Boilers can be fitted with packaged burners which fire a variety of fuels from tallow to syngas to Hydrogen and most anything in between.

    By Superior Boiler Works, Inc. based in Hutchinson, KANSAS (USA).

  • Industrial water demineralisation

    Deionized water, also known as demineralised water, is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate and even silica. Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion exchange resins which exchange hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion for dissolved minerals, which then recombine to form water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup.

    By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.

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