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hydrogen monitoring Applications

  • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) monitoring

    Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. H2S is colorless, toxic and flammable and is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. Hydrogen sulfide often results from sulfur reducing bacteria in nonorganic matter (in the absence of oxygen), such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). H2S also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Moisture Monitoring for Hydrogen Annealing Ovens

    High moisture content in hydrogen gas used in annealing furnaces causes oxidation of the metal to occur, thus resulting in an undesirable surface finish on the product

    By Moisture Control & Measurement Ltd based in Wetherby, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Moisture Monitoring for Hydrogen Cooled Electricity Generators

    Hydrogen is used to cool large, stationary generators because of its high heat capacity and low viscosity, and must be kept dry to maintain both of these properties. Ambient moisture is considered a contaminant, which will reduce the heat capacity and increase the viscosity of the cooling hydrogen.

    By Moisture Control & Measurement Ltd based in Wetherby, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) Monitoring in Air

    Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) is a colorless gas that is used extensively in industrial applications. Fluoride monitoring is especially needed for aluminum plants that need to convert HF into fluorine for use in their processes. Any HF that escapes is a cost to the plant, so an HF analyzer is essential to keep track of and prevent the losses.

    By Unisearch Associates Inc. based in Concord, ONTARIO (CANADA).

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    Measurement solution for hydrogen fuel cell testing

    As the alternatives to fossil fuels for power generation and automotive power become more widespread and preferred, so has increased the research and testing of hydrogen gas in fuel cells. The hydrogen (H2) gas used in fuel cell has to be free of impurities in order to make the fuel cell as efficient as possible and so quality thresholds have been set in legislation. Such legislation as SAE J2719 provides hydrogen fuel quality standards for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles. If impurities above these thresholds are present in the H2 fuel then there is a risk of not only making the cell inefficient, but also unrecoverable back to its peak operating voltage as the fuel cell electrode becomes poisoned.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Measurement of hydrogen sulfide & carbon disulfide in air for continous emission monitoring

    The Series 8900 Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Disulfide Analyzer provides direct measurement of H2S and CS2 in ambient air. This instrument is utilized for continuous emission monitoring. The Series 8900 H2S and CS2 Analyzer employs a Photoionization detector (PID) as the sensing element. A dual column configuration with timed backflush to vent is used to strip off moisture and heavier hydrocarbons. A pre-cut column is used in series with the analytical column. At sample injection a fixed volume of sample is carried to the pre-cut column. Backflush is timed so that only the H2S, CS2, and other similar components are eluted to the analytical column. Contaminants on the pre-cut column are backflushed to vent. H2S and CS2 are separated from potentially interfering components on the analytical column and elute to the detector for analysis.

    By MOCON, Inc. - Baseline based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA).

  • Hydrocarbons monitoring

    Hydrocarbons are a family of organic chemicals consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a variety of ways. Hydrocarbons are found naturally in crude oil and are released into the environment with its combustion (power plants, home heaters etc).

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Odour Monitoring

    Measurement of odours from pulp & paper, feedlots and natural sources is challenging and requires careful selection of instrumentation. Ecotech offers a complete monitoring solution designed for this application. Odours are one of the most common sources of air pollution complaints and may be due to a wide variety of sources from rotting vegetation, animal feedlots, pulp and paper manufacturing, sewerage treatment facilities etc. The measurement of odours is extremely difficult due to the variety of sources of odour and the often very low ppb concentrations that produce odour. However, some industries and applications have a known source of odour resulting from compounds such as mercaptans, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, typically from industries such as pulp and paper manufacturing, fertiliser production or natural sources such as rotting vegetation. Ecotech is able to offer extremely sensitive instrumentation and systems that enables the low ppb monitoring of these species down to 1 ppb, fully integrated with our data evaluation and reporting software.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

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    Determination of TOC in stack

    PROBLEM: The industrial chimney's emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are becoming issues of global importance and to have an accurate knowledge about how to test VOC turns into a strategic issue. VOC emissions are quantified and monitored according to standard EN 12619, using FID analyser which uses hydrogen and other reference gases in pressurized cylinder. Operators must then approach the sampling point, often placed several meters from the ground, climbing chimneys of industrial settlements with instruments and cylinders. Is it possible making this job easier and safer? SOLUTION: Using the Polaris FID analyser produced by Pollution Srl, Italy, it is possible to carry out the VOCs monitoring according to EN 12619 without lifting accessories and heavy weights typically involved with FID analyser. Polaris FID analyser complies with this standard regulation but what is really a breakthrough and cutting-edge, is the unmatched portability and the next generation technology

    By Pollution Srl based in Budrio, ITALY.

  • Ammonia (NH3) monitoring

    Ammonia is a compound featuring a nitrogen molecule attached to three hydrogen molecules (NH3). It is a colorless gas with a characteristic pungent smell similar to human urine, as urine contains a large amount of ammonia in it.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

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    Oxygen monitoring from aerobic and anaerobic for biodegradation tests

    Biodegradation tests involve testing samples in response to various parameters: dilution, nutrient addition, pH, temperature, and others. The pattern of oxygen uptake in aerobic tests; nitrogen gas production in anoxic denitrification tests; methane production in methanogenic tests; hydrogen production during glycolysis; and carbon dioxide production during fermentation reactions gives a measure of the rate and extent of biodegradation of the organic constituents of the test sample.

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

  • Total Reduced Sulfur (S) monitoring

    Total reduced sulfur(s), which include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (methanethiol, CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3), occur naturally in the environment and can also be present in numerous industrial gaseous streams – petroleum refining, natural gas extraction, and chemical operations like the pulp/paper industry. Hydrogen sulfide is the most prevalent of the total reduced sulfurs, and is commonly found in volcanic gases, marshes and swamps, wetlands and mud flats, sulfur springs and decaying organic matter. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide is produced by living organisms, including human beings, through the digestion and metabolization of sulfur-containing materials. It must be noted that sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (SO3) and sulfuric acid mist are not included in the determination of TRS, as these are oxidized sulfur compounds and are permitted and monitored separately from TRS.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

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    Continuous emissions monitoring for palm oil plants

    Make more out of your mill. OPSIS tested and approved monitoring systems provide cost-effective and reliable on-line monitoring of several gas compounds, such as both high and low concentrations of methane, moisture, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, at several locations.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

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    Continuous emissions monitoring in cement kilns

    Various pollutants form in the cement manufacturing process, especially when alternative fuels and waste-derived fuels are used. Typically a cement kiln using these fuels is a required to monitor hydrogen chloride (HCl). Gasmet CEM II is EN 15267-3 approved for HCl measurement in 0 … 15 mg/Nm3 range.High process temperatures result in generation of more nitrogen oxides (NOx) than in typical municipal waste incineration.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Fluoride emissions monitoring in aluminum smelters

    Production of aluminum from its ores at aluminum smelters results in carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, sulfur dioxide SO2, and hydrogen fluoride HF gas emissions during the electrolytic process phase to the atmosphere. The gas emissions need to be monitored. Typically the smelters have emission limit values (ELVs) for sulfur dioxide and hydrogen fluoride emissions. These emissions should be measured accurately and with good precision, to ensure the smelter does not exceed its emission limit values. In addition several fluoride compounds may be produced in the electrolytic bath in the event of an oxygen shortage. These compounds include carbon tetrafluoride CF4, hexafluoroethane C2F6, sulfur hexafluoride SF6, and silicon tetrafluoride SiF4. These additional emission components are problematic, as they have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) values. The GWP is a relative measure designed to demonstrate how much heat a greenhouse gas (GHG) traps in the atmosphere. Emission of one kilogram of carbon tetrafluoride into the atmosphere today has the potential of heating the atmosphere as much as 7,000 kilograms of carbon dioxide over the next 100 years.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Raw-gas monitoring for scrubber optimizing

    The consumption of scrubbing material in a scrubber is related to the mass flow of acid gases. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are the major acid gases in an incinerator. By measuring the mass flow of SO2 and HCl in the raw gas going into the scrubber, it is possible to calculate the required quantity of scrubbing material.

    By Opsis AB based in Furulund, SWEDEN.

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    Measurement solution for HF emissions from brickworks

    Brick kilns, as well as other plants such as ceramics manufacturers and fertiliser producers, are a major producer of hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions. HF is highly reactive gas and seriously damaging to human health, so has strict emissions limits imposed by legislation. In addition to the effects to humans, emissions have been found to damage crops and fruit trees, as well as the general environment. The brick industry strives to reduce the amount of HF emissions and numerous projects have been carried out into the research and development of proposed process modifications that introduce ways to reduce hydrogen fluoride emissions via the latest technology such as filters and scrubbers.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Gas analysis & monitoring system for biogas analysis

    “Biogas” means a mixture of various types of gas (mostly methane) produced by bacterial fermentation in anaerobic conditions(absence of oxygen) of organic residues from waste, decaying plant, carcasses in putrescence. The analyzers of biogas by Infrared cells carry out the continuous analysis of CH4, O2, CO2, H2S and NH3. The whole process sees the decomposition of organic material by some types of bacteria, producing carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen and methane(methane conversion of organic compounds).

    By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia based in Montiglio, ITALY.

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    Gas monitoring instruments and systems for stack testing according to EPA test method 320

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has two stack testing methods for FTIR gas analyzers. Method 320 is an FTIR method for measuring wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants. Method 321 is a specific version for measuring hydrogen chloride HCl at cement kilns producing Portland cement. These methods define a quality assurance and control processes for verifying the accuracy of the results. The requirements for analytical equipment and software are defined on 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix B Performance Specification 15. Gasmet™ Gas Analyzers and Calcmet™ software have been designed to take the requirements of the performance specification into account.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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