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hydrogen sulfide Applications

  • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) monitoring

    Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. H2S is colorless, toxic and flammable and is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. Hydrogen sulfide often results from sulfur reducing bacteria in nonorganic matter (in the absence of oxygen), such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). H2S also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

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    Water Treatment Solutions for Hydrogen Sulfide

    Sulfates and hydrogen sulfide are both common nuisance contaminants. Although neither is usually a significant health hazard, sulfates can have a temporary laxative effect on humans and young livestock. Sulfates also may clog plumbing and stain clothing. Hydrogen sulfide produces an offensive `rotten egg` odor and taste in the water, especially when the water is heated.

    By Adedge Water Technologies, LLC based in Buford, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Hydrogen sulfide removal in sludge management

    In the treatment of sanitary sewage, bio-solids are separated from the liquid. These bio-solids are concentrated and dewatered using filter presses, centrifuges, or other devices. Hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are released during the dewatering operation.  Carus permanganates react quickly and produce immediate results for hydrogen sulfide removal in order to provide a safe, odor free environment and minimize corrosion due to sulfides.

    By Carus Corporation based in Peru, ILLINOIS (USA).

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Hydrogen sulfide removal treatment for oil and gas industry

    The chemicals used for treating for H2S in the oil and gas industry can sometimes be just as hazardous as the H2S itself. MIOX wants to eliminate these hazardous chemicals and let oil & gas companies create their own safe chemistry on-demand as they need it. Whether it is high volume treatment, or low volume treatments in the middle of nowhere with no resources, we have a solution for your need.

    By MIOX Corporation based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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    Measurement of hydrogen sulfide & carbon disulfide in air for continous emission monitoring

    The Series 8900 Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Disulfide Analyzer provides direct measurement of H2S and CS2 in ambient air. This instrument is utilized for continuous emission monitoring. The Series 8900 H2S and CS2 Analyzer employs a Photoionization detector (PID) as the sensing element. A dual column configuration with timed backflush to vent is used to strip off moisture and heavier hydrocarbons. A pre-cut column is used in series with the analytical column. At sample injection a fixed volume of sample is carried to the pre-cut column. Backflush is timed so that only the H2S, CS2, and other similar components are eluted to the analytical column. Contaminants on the pre-cut column are backflushed to vent. H2S and CS2 are separated from potentially interfering components on the analytical column and elute to the detector for analysis.

    By MOCON, Inc. - Baseline based in Lyons, COLORADO (USA).

  • Gravity Main Sulfide Odor Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Gravity main sewer systems include major trunk lines and the tributaries that feed them. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odor builds up in the collections system as the flows collect from upstream reaches and become larger, deeper and more septic (oxygen depleted) in the downstream reaches more near to the wastewater treatment plant. In general, most of the more significant hydrogen sulfide odor and corrosion control problems occur in the major trunk systems segments conveying flow to the plant. Therefore, selection of sulfide treatment for gravity systems has several options depending mainly on: Duration of control required Degree of septicity (oxygen depletion) Location of target control points or "hot spots" Location of available dosing points upstream of "hot spots" Availability of civil infrastructure and utilities Sensitivity to hazardous chemicals

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Advanced water treatment equipments for hydrogen sulfide removal

    The presence of hydrogen sulfide in home drinking water supplies is not a health hazard, but is a common nuisance contaminant whose distinctive `rotten egg` odor makes water treatment desirable. Several treatment methods are available, and often hydrogen sulfide can be treated and removed using the same process and equipment used for iron and manganese removal.

    By Advanced Equipment and Services, Inc. (AESINC) based in Coconut Creek, FLORIDA (USA).

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    Air Pollution Control Solution for the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

    Hydrogen Sulfide is lethal if released. Macrotek is a leader in developing advanced technologies for optimum removal and treatment. Our experience includes many installations using caustic, oxidizing reagents, catalytic and forced oxidation combination, and biofilters. Each application is unique and requires custom solutions.

    By Macrotek Inc. based in Markham, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • Force Main Systems Sulfide Odor Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Force main systems are typically high sulfide odor generators due to septicity conditions related to full pipe flow and a greater anaerobic slime layer (biofilm) thickness. Primary factors that influence sulfide loading generation in a force main include sewage temperature, BOD, retention time, pipe size and flow. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) release at the force main discharge is usually the main concern related to odor and corrosion control needs; however, corrosion problems within the pipe can be of a concern (e.g. "crown cutting") at locations where air pockets can lead to concentrated H2S gas build up. Some basic considerations for assessing an appropriate sulfide odor treatment method for force main systems include: Retention time / duration of control Pump station type / cycling (e.g. vfd; start/stop, etc). Force main injection tap points, if any (e.g. air relief valves) Existence of intermediate re-lift stations or in series pump stations Manifold force main systems

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Odor Scrubbers Applications with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution. Step 1: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O Step 2: 4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when used in place of bleach, one gallon 50% H2O2 for every 10 gallons of 15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). This generally translates into a break-even cost scenario. Sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) is added to maintain a pH of 10.0 - 10.5 in the scrubbing solution. There is also in practice a process which uses H2O2 in series with bleach to scrub composting odors. This process relies on a series of three packed tower scrubbers: the first is a pH neutral water wash (to remove ammonia and amine odors); the second uses a conventional caustic/bleach solution in which the bleach is purposely overdosed (to oxidize the complex organic sulfur odors); and the third uses a caustic/H2O2 solution (to remove the unreacted chlorine vapors carried over from the second stage). H2O2 + HOCl → HCl + H2O + O2 Typical dose ratios are 0.5 parts H2O2 per part hypochlorite (OCl-), with sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) added to maintain a pH of 8.5 in the scrubbing solution.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Filamentous Bulking Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Basis of Control with Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide may be used to correct a serious filamentous bulking situation or, preferably, to prevent one from occurring until adjustments can be made to remove the cause. When applied to the return activated sludge, hydrogen peroxide supplies dissolved oxygen which helps restore the microbial activity necessary for effective operation, while selectively oxidizing the filaments which retard settling. The effective dose of hydrogen peroxide is a function of time and concentration, and varies from plant to plant. To correct a serious bulking problem, immediate results may be obtained by adding 100 - 200 mg/L H2O2 to the biosolids recycle line. Once control of bulking is obtained, the dose may be reduced to 25 - 50 mg/L H2O2 to prevent re-occurrence. Practical Considerations Filamentous bulking of municipal activated sludge is not a normal occurrence, and suggests more fundamental problems may be at work (e.g., low dissolved oxygen, high sulfide input, heavy organic loading, nutrient imbalance, improper sludge age, or rapid changes in influent characteristics). Consequently, the use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide to control bulking should be pursued in concurrently with more fundamental corrective measures.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Headworks Odor and Corrosion Control Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide typically controls odors and corrosion at treatment plant headworks by direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) within the wastewater. In the direct oxidation mode, H2O2 is applied to the wastewater 5-30 minutes prior to the point where the odors are being released, generally as the wastewater line enters the plant boundary. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide treatment depends upon the available reaction time, the level of iron in the wastewater (reaction catalyst), wastewater pH and temperature, and the initial and target levels of H2S odor. Under optimal conditions, effective dose ratios are 1.2 - 1.5 parts H2O2 per part dissolved sulfide, and can be reliably estimated through beaker tests. H2O2 + H2S → S0 + 2H2O Frequently, control of odors through the primary clarifiers is wanted. In such case, the mechanism of control is both direct oxidation of H2S (as it rises from the solids blanket), and prevention of odor generation (by supplying dissolved oxygen). Control is typically achieved with a booster dose of 1-2 mg/L H2O2 added to the clarifier influent. Higher doses or alternate modes of addition may be required in cases where: 1) hydraulic retention times are > 2-3 hours; 2) solids blanket depths are > 1-2 feet; 3) soluble BOD levels are > 200-300 mg/L; or 4) waste activated sludge is co-settled with the primary solids. 2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP)/Redox

    Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other.

    By Myron L Company based in Carlsbad, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in Wastewater Treatment Operations

    Removing hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and other organosulfur compounds from wastewater treatment plant odor causing processes and areas. Stripping of ammonia and other VOC compounds.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed for Wastewater Treatment Operations

    For industrial and municipal treatment plants; Chemical scrubbers, biological towers and adsorption systems to remove hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, other organic sulfur compounds and ammonia from digesters, pump stations, ponds, grit and screening works, sludge filter presses and dryers. Special Wet Electrostatic Precipitator for sewage sludge incinerators. Stripping ammonia and other volatile compounds. Decarbonization removal of carbon dioxide from wastewater.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Odor control for pulp and paper

    Pulp and paper production with none of the odor. Pulp and paper manufacturing is a notorious source of nuisance odors, often stemming from hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and sulfur dioxide. Fortunately, Ecosorb products offer a natural and effective solution to neutralize these odors and all others associated with the paper and pulp industry. Ecosorb odor eliminators have been used repeatedly by large paper and pulp manufacturers to control odors around on-site black liquor lagoons, primary clarification ponds and landfills.

    By OMI Industries (OMI) based in Long Grove, ILLINOIS (USA).

  • Chlorine dioxide treatment for rendering

    Odor Control: Chlorine dioxide controls odors by destroying hydrogen sulfide through chemical oxidation.  Using an odor scrubber, chlorine dioxide solutions may be added directly to water containing the odorous compound for quick and cost-effective oxidations.

    By DuPont Chlorine Dioxide based in North Kingstown,, RHODE ISLAND (USA).

  • Reduced Sulfur Compound Treatment for Refinery Wastewater

    Sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfates and mercaptans, can present serious refinery wastewater problems. Hydrogen peroxide treatment is a cost effective way to treat these reduced sulfur species. http://www.h2o2.com/industrial/refinery-petrochemical-applications.aspx?pid=98&name=Reduced-Sulfur-Compound-Treatment

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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