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hydrogen sulfide oxidizer Applications

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Air Pollution Control Solution for the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)

    Hydrogen Sulfide is lethal if released. Macrotek is a leader in developing advanced technologies for optimum removal and treatment. Our experience includes many installations using caustic, oxidizing reagents, catalytic and forced oxidation combination, and biofilters. Each application is unique and requires custom solutions.

    By Macrotek Inc. based in Markham, ONTARIO (CANADA).

  • Filamentous Bulking Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Basis of Control with Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide may be used to correct a serious filamentous bulking situation or, preferably, to prevent one from occurring until adjustments can be made to remove the cause. When applied to the return activated sludge, hydrogen peroxide supplies dissolved oxygen which helps restore the microbial activity necessary for effective operation, while selectively oxidizing the filaments which retard settling. The effective dose of hydrogen peroxide is a function of time and concentration, and varies from plant to plant. To correct a serious bulking problem, immediate results may be obtained by adding 100 - 200 mg/L H2O2 to the biosolids recycle line. Once control of bulking is obtained, the dose may be reduced to 25 - 50 mg/L H2O2 to prevent re-occurrence. Practical Considerations Filamentous bulking of municipal activated sludge is not a normal occurrence, and suggests more fundamental problems may be at work (e.g., low dissolved oxygen, high sulfide input, heavy organic loading, nutrient imbalance, improper sludge age, or rapid changes in influent characteristics). Consequently, the use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide to control bulking should be pursued in concurrently with more fundamental corrective measures.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Odor Scrubbers Applications with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution. Step 1: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O Step 2: 4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when used in place of bleach, one gallon 50% H2O2 for every 10 gallons of 15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). This generally translates into a break-even cost scenario. Sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) is added to maintain a pH of 10.0 - 10.5 in the scrubbing solution. There is also in practice a process which uses H2O2 in series with bleach to scrub composting odors. This process relies on a series of three packed tower scrubbers: the first is a pH neutral water wash (to remove ammonia and amine odors); the second uses a conventional caustic/bleach solution in which the bleach is purposely overdosed (to oxidize the complex organic sulfur odors); and the third uses a caustic/H2O2 solution (to remove the unreacted chlorine vapors carried over from the second stage). H2O2 + HOCl → HCl + H2O + O2 Typical dose ratios are 0.5 parts H2O2 per part hypochlorite (OCl-), with sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) added to maintain a pH of 8.5 in the scrubbing solution.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP)/Redox

    Oxidation Reduction Potential or Redox is the activity or strength of oxidizers and reducers in relation to their concentration. Oxidizers accept electrons, reducers lose electrons. Examples of oxidizers are: chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, bromine, ozone, and chlorine dioxide. Examples of reducers are sodium sulfite, sodium bisulfate and hydrogen sulfide. Like acidity and alkalinity, the increase of one is at the expense of the other.

    By Myron L Company based in Carlsbad, CALIFORNIA (USA).

  • Headworks Odor and Corrosion Control Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide typically controls odors and corrosion at treatment plant headworks by direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) within the wastewater. In the direct oxidation mode, H2O2 is applied to the wastewater 5-30 minutes prior to the point where the odors are being released, generally as the wastewater line enters the plant boundary. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide treatment depends upon the available reaction time, the level of iron in the wastewater (reaction catalyst), wastewater pH and temperature, and the initial and target levels of H2S odor. Under optimal conditions, effective dose ratios are 1.2 - 1.5 parts H2O2 per part dissolved sulfide, and can be reliably estimated through beaker tests. H2O2 + H2S → S0 + 2H2O Frequently, control of odors through the primary clarifiers is wanted. In such case, the mechanism of control is both direct oxidation of H2S (as it rises from the solids blanket), and prevention of odor generation (by supplying dissolved oxygen). Control is typically achieved with a booster dose of 1-2 mg/L H2O2 added to the clarifier influent. Higher doses or alternate modes of addition may be required in cases where: 1) hydraulic retention times are > 2-3 hours; 2) solids blanket depths are > 1-2 feet; 3) soluble BOD levels are > 200-300 mg/L; or 4) waste activated sludge is co-settled with the primary solids. 2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Industrial wastewater treatment for industries

    MIOX is the lowest cost supplier of chlorine for disinfection and oxidation of wastewater prior to discharge. Mixed Oxidant Solution (MOS) chemistry is more effective at biofilm control, Biochemical and Chemical oxygen demand removal (BOD/COD), breakpoint chlorination of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal.

    By MIOX Corporation - Johnson Matthey`s Water Technologies based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

  • Chlorine dioxide for municipal wastewater treatment industry

    Wastewater Deodorization: The formation of hydrogen sulfide often poses a problem for municipal wastewater treatment.  Chlorine dioxide, a powerful oxidant, can be effectively used to control noxious, irritating, or pungent odors from many operations.  Moreover, its unique selective properties permit more efficient application at a lower dosage and cost than chorine, hypochlorite, permanganate peroxide or ozone.

    By DuPont Chlorine Dioxide based in North Kingstown,, RHODE ISLAND (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Petroleum/Petrochemical Industry

    Scrubbing of Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and other organosulfur compounds from sour gas and other sources. Proprietary regenerative scrubbing chemistries for hydrogen sulfide removal with sulfur production. By-product production systems for producing sodium hydrosulfide (Nash) from hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide scrubbing. Recover catalyst dust from FCC units. HCL storage tank vent scrubbing. Removal of HCL and particulate from thermal oxidizers burning chlorinated plastics. Marine drilling platforms sulfur dioxide thermal oxidizer emissions.  Asphalt plant scrubbers and hydrogen sulfide emissions from holding tanks. Pilot plant scrubber systems for hydrogen sulfide. Removal of halogenated and sulfur bearing gaseous compounds from high temperature thermal oxidizers and drilling platforms waste. Well drilling hydrochloric acid storage tanks.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

  • Process Design

    Custom water and wastewater engineering, consulting and process design services to prevent air, land, water and environmental pollution. We rework systems as processes change and troubleshoot where necessary to bring systems into compliance. • High purity and process water • Biological nutrient removal • Solids treatment • Toxicity reduction • Industrial treatment • Advanced oxidation and alternative disinfection • Effluent reclamation and reuse • Land application systems • Natural treatment systems • Hydrogen sulfide and odor control • Decentralized treatment systems • Process optimization / operations assistance • Conceptual and strategic water planning

    By Yates Environmental Services based in Spokane, WASHINGTON (USA).

  • Total Reduced Sulfur (S) monitoring

    Total reduced sulfur(s), which include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (methanethiol, CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3), occur naturally in the environment and can also be present in numerous industrial gaseous streams – petroleum refining, natural gas extraction, and chemical operations like the pulp/paper industry. Hydrogen sulfide is the most prevalent of the total reduced sulfurs, and is commonly found in volcanic gases, marshes and swamps, wetlands and mud flats, sulfur springs and decaying organic matter. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide is produced by living organisms, including human beings, through the digestion and metabolization of sulfur-containing materials. It must be noted that sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (SO3) and sulfuric acid mist are not included in the determination of TRS, as these are oxidized sulfur compounds and are permitted and monitored separately from TRS.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Gas/Liquid and liquid/liquid mixing for air stripping applications

    The growing demand placed on the world’s water, in combination with more stringent water quality regulations, have placed unprecedented demands to provide safe, reliable and aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Air stripping is an effective way of removing volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) from contaminated water and is commonly used for this application. Air stripping systems mix air with a water supply with the goal to generate the largest possible air-water contact area so that VOCs and dissolved gases, such as radon and hydrogen sulfide, will move from the water to the air. In addition to removing VOCs, air stripping is primarily used for removing oxidizing contaminants such as iron and manganese, improving taste, or removing odor. Air stripping is an EPA Best Available Technology (BAT) for some VOCs including benzene, toluene, xylene, tri/tetrachloroethylene, trihalomethanes, vinyl chloride and many others.

    By Mazzei Injector Company, LLC based in Bakersfield, CALIFORNIA (USA).

  • Disposal wells treatment for oil and gas industry

    Treating the water being injected for disposal is not always considered by operators. This is likely costing you money in the long run. Removing iron, heavy metals, and treating out ammonia is a benefit to treating with MIOX’s mixed oxidant solution. While these are benefits of the technology, the most important is the elimination of bacteria which can cause Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), corrosion pitting, poor injectivity and other problems, resulting in great well workover frequency. Treating injection wells does not need to be expensive, and can be treated as you inject.

    By MIOX Corporation - Johnson Matthey`s Water Technologies based in Albuquerque, NEW MEXICO (USA).

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