While land-based industry has been subject to strenuous emissions regulations over the past decades, air emissions from sea-going ships’ machinery has so far been largely unregulated. As a result, according to EU statistics, ships have become the single biggest source of sulphur dioxide (SO2) within the EU. The US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) reports similar findings, i.e., that the proportion of air pollutants released which can be attributed to the shipping industry is increasing. MARPOL Annex VI aims to reduce emissions from ships through international regulations, which hopefully will discourage states from enacting unilateral regulations problematic to the shipping industry.
By Codel International Ltd based in Bakewell, UNITED KINGDOM.
In sewage treatment plants, flow sensors are primarily installed for internal reasons. Ultrasonic flow meters are used to control the flow velocity in partially filled and fulfilled pressurized pipes, specific plant components, for leak detection or to control the use of additives. International regulations such as the EU-Directive for handling municipal waste water require flow metering for a continuous surveillance of waste water flow. Defective flow monitoring in sewage-treatment plants can therefore influence their operation, but there can also be legal or environmental consequences.
By HydroVision GmbH based in Kaufbeuren, GERMANY.
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