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laboratory fluid Applications

  • Laboratory equipments for fluid typing

    GeoSpec2 instruments fitted with Pulsed Field Gradients (pfg) are able to carry out measurements dependent on the diffusion, flow, or distribution of the fluids within the core sample. One application is for fluid typing. It is possible that different fluids, such as heavy oils and partially bound water, may exhibit similar T2 values, which makes it difficult to identify which fluid is which using a standard T2 distribution. However, even if they have similar T2 values they are unlikely also to have similar diffusion characteristics, so a measurement that collects both T2 and diffusion data should in principle be able to separate the fluid types. GIT Systems software, together with a pfg accessory on a GeoSpec2 NMR instrument, enables such measurements to be done. The result is a two-dimensional data map illustrating the relative proportions of the different fluid types in the sample.

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Laboratory equipments for pore size distribution

    NMR can determine porosity and pore size distributions easily and quickly. Essentially, NMR signals are generated from liquids (oil or brine) when the sample is placed in a magnetic field and then excited with a brief pulse of radio frequency (RF) energy. Immediately after the pulse, an NMR signal appears and then dies away with a characteristic relaxation time or decay rate, known at T2. The amplitude of the signal immediately following the pulse is an indication of total fluid present, while theT2 of the signal gives valuable information about the physical environment of the fluid (ie. size of pore where the fluid is located).

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Laboratory equipments for pore throat distribution & wettability

    Having obtained a Pc curve, pore throat distributions can now be calculated using the Washburn equations. The imbibition and secondary drainage curves generated by the NMR Pc measurement also allow USBM wettability to be predicted. Both of these calculations are integrated into the software, and follow as a natural consequence of the NMR Pc data. A further added advantage is that the NMR measurement is non-destructive and can use reservoir fluids and reservoir wettability.

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Laboratory equipments for well log calibration

    Down-hole NMR tools are routinely run during the oil and gas exploration process and provide valuable information to the reservoir engineers. The tools measure T2 distribution as a function of depth. T2 can be directly related to pore size and with the correct T2 cut-off can allow the determination of bound fluid versus free fluid in the reserve. These values can then be used to estimate recoverable reserves.

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Thin-film Measurement Technology for Medical Industry

    The medical industry requires the accurate and consistent performance of its equipment. IST’s precise and reliable sensors meet the needs of these applications. Flow is perhaps the most widely used sensor in this industry, controlling medical devices where a gas or fluid is being supplied to a patient, or in cases of patient monitoring. Humidity sensors also have an application in the medical industry in products that control the air present or supplied to the patient.

    By Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) based in Las Vegas, NEVADA (USA).

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