measuring condensate Applications
The pH value and the conductivity have to be determined quasi-continuously at numerous locations in a power plant. The pH value is a key parameter to control the amount of lithium hydroxide that has to be added to the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor; in water steam circuits, the pH value controls the amount of added amines. The conductivity indicates the amount of dissolved minerals. It is a measure of the water purity and is one of the most important parameters for any chemical control program in a power plant. It is determined at numerous sampling points in the power plant, for example, in the cooling water circuit, in feed and makeup water, at the outlet of the condensate pump, and in the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor.
By Metrohm AG based in Herisau, SWITZERLAND.
The reproducibility of the devices has been approved by worldwide use. In order to avoid the condensation or vaporization of the particles during the particle measurement, the isothermal and isobaric particle generation and measurement is necessary.
By Palas GmbH based in Karlsruhe, GERMANY.
Thermal mass flow meters provide excellent measurement capabilities in dry gas flows. They have proven durability, accuracy, and repeatability. However, thermal flow meters are sensitive to liquid droplets in a wet gas stream. For a thermal flow meter to work accurately in a condensing gas environment, the probe must be placed far enough downstream so that the entrained water has condensed onto the pipe wall. In a very wet environment, any condensing liquid (commonly referred to as mist or fog) contacting the sensor probes causes a high reading due to the liquid vaporizing on the heated portion of the sensor. As a result of this deficiency, measurements with conventional thermal meters are largely ignored when moisture levels rise because there is no confidence that the measurements are true.
By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).
The process of electricity generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas is water-intensive. Between 40-50% of all water abstracted and used in developed countries is used in the generation of electricity. Thus, a reliable, abundant and predictable source of raw water supply to a power plant is a critical factor in site selection. Water supplies are required to provide various process waters for the following essential main purposes such as make-up water, cooling water for steam turbine condensers, and auxiliary plant cooling water.
The primary application of modern water treatment technology is to maintain the integrity and performance of the power plant. Critical plant applications have water purity or conditioning requirements that must be adhered to for safe, reliable and efficient power generation.
Experience has shown that integration of water technology treatments with power plant design can be very important in reducing operational problems and component failures
At power plant worldwide there are increasing limitations on water availability and environmental restrictions on discharges. This is expected to promote measures for water conservation and to have an increasing influence on water treatment decisions. At power plant, the recycling of internal wastewater streams can extend from the recovery of individual high-quality waste streams, which can be reused either directly or after only limited treatment, through to the development of fully integrated water/wastewater treatment systems for zero liquid discharge. However, the application of reuse schemes requires site-specific assessment, as not all waters may be viable options for recovery.
By De Nora Water Technologies based in Colmar, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).
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