Manufacturers of bandages and permeable membranes must comply with tests to determine the extent of permeability of the finished product. Quality can be improved and wastage reduced if the moisture can be measured quickly and reliably.
Hydrogen is used to cool large, stationary generators because of its high heat capacity and low viscosity, and must be kept dry to maintain both of these properties. Ambient moisture is considered a contaminant, which will reduce the heat capacity and increase the viscosity of the cooling hydrogen.
Excess humidity in the air used to dry plastic pellets has several adverse effects on the quality of the products produced. The strength of the product is decreased. The surface of the product can be blemished. The product can have a ‘cloudy’ appearance.
Foil-wrapped foods are often sealed with air, or an inert gas. It is possible to extend the storage life of the food if the air trapped between the foil and the food is replaced with nitrogen of very low moisture content .
Moisture needs to be measured in feed stock gases in the manufacture of polymers . For example, pre-dried benzene is fed in to a reactor containing hydrochloric acid – if the dryers are not operating properly moisture in the benzene promotes acid corrosion of the reactor and process lines. Several processes require water concentrations of specific values to optimise efficiency and yield; in such cases more sophisticated instruments are required.
SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride ) or air is used as an insulation gas in circuit breakers . Excess moisture in these gases causes arcing, which can trip the circuit breaker and cut off power to the distribution network. More seriously, such arcing can lead to physical damage of equipment and, on occasion, death of plant operatives (please ask for our case study on circuit breakers).
Our MAC moisture analyzers can also assist in a number of applications for industry and manufacturing. Even if you are not working with an oven or concerned with monitoring flue gases, you may still find yourself in need of moisture monitoring capabilities, such as if your project concerns:
Delta-T Devices has decades of experience in creating premium-grade instruments for soil moisture measurement and recording. Our soil moisture sensors, data loggers (with cloud connectivity) and readout units are built to exacting standards – ensuring ruggedness, longevity, and optimum performance throughout their life. They are used and trusted by researchers around the world and are suited to a wide variety of soil moisture measurement applications and budgets.
The presence of humidity in a blanketing gas for sensitive instruments can cause corrosion problems, rapid changes incalibration and loss of sensitivity. The presence of oil contamination in compressors can cause similar problems.
The Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor uses carbon dioxide gas to transfer heat from the nuclear fission core to the water boiler for steam generation. The moisture content needs to be monitored to avoid corrosion damage, and continuous moisture monitoring acts as a boiler leak detector or bulk moisture meter.
A variety of bottled gases are certified for resale as "calibration gases ", specifying the concentration of contaminants in each bottle. Often the water content is specified, and this must be monitored with precision both by the supplier and consumer.
The presence of moisture in high-pressure natural gas from production wells causes pipelines and associated valves to freeze. High moisture content also leads to the formation of hydrates of the liquid hydrocarbons present, thus causing further difficulties. The moisture content of the gas also adversely affects the calorific value of the gas, thus lowering the quality and value of the product. Moisture is therefore measured at the point of extraction, at export stations, at gas storage locations and in the...
Moisture is continuously monitored in the vacuum evacuation and gas refill of oil-filled transformers. The moisture content of blanketing gases used in the transformers directly affects the dielectric properties of the oil, through water vapour dissolution.
Optimal performance of petrochemical reforming catalysts depends upon maintaining an optimal moisture / chloride ratio within the reforming reactor. When moisture and chloride are out of balance, catalysts suffer from higher deactivation rates and decreased yields. The cost of inadequately controlling the moisture / chloride ratio can be very high in terms of yield losses, off-spec product, increased catalyst regeneration , early catalyst replacement , processing upsets and / or increased downtime.
A reliable supply of breathing air is critical for applications in the military, medical and fire fighting sectors. The presence of excess moisture in breathing air can lead to freezing in the pressure regulator and ice blocking the orifice, causing an interruption to the supply of air to the user. Such freezing effects have caused the loss of life and equipment in submarines and aircraft.