Problem: Nitrate, the most stable form of nitrogen in water, is found in both ground and surface water and originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to its high solubility in water, nitrate is not filtered out from groundwater like other contaminants. Removing nitrates from source water is important as elevated levels in drinking water can cause serious health effects when ingested.
By Real Tech Inc. based in Whitby, ONTARIO (CANADA).
Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined nitrogen, particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure, especially from feedlots. The primary inorganic nitrates which may contaminate drinking water are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which are widely used as fertilizers. According to the Toxics Release Inventory, releases to water and land totaled over 112 million pounds from 1991 through 1993.
By Adedge Water Technologies, LLC based in Buford, GEORGIA (US) (USA).
Enhanced anaerobic biodegradation is the practice of adding hydrogen (an electron donor) to groundwater and/or soil to increase the number and vitality of indigenous microorganisms performing anaerobic bioremediation (reductive dechlorination) on any anaerobically degradable compound or chlorinated contaminant. The most commonly targeted chlorinated groundwater contaminants are primarily used in industry as degreasing agents and include: Perchloroethylene (PCE), Trichloroethylene (TCE), Dichloroethylene (DCE), Vinyl Chloride (VC).
Other anaerobically degradable compounds include: carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, certain pesticides/herbicides, perchlorate, nitrate, nitroaromatic explosives (TNT, RDX), dyes and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s).
By REGENESIS based in San Clemente, CALIFORNIA (USA).
Drinking water supply and distribution systems around the world (a critical and interdependent component of a nation’s infrastructure) are vulnerable to both intentional and accidental contamination. Unusual water quality may serve as a warning of potential contamination. The available physico-chemical sensors utilize general water quality parameters, such as free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride, ammonia, nitrate to detect the contamination. Generally, one or more of these water quality parameters will change due to the injection of a contaminant. However, no single chemical sensor responds to all possible contaminants nor can they give any indication of the potential toxicity of complex mixtures.
By microLAN B.V. based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.
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