Protea has deployed FTIR gas analysers in many projects requiring the monitoring of complex mixes of VOCs. In the chemical and pharmaceutical industry, scrubbers and carbon-bed abatement plants are typical installations where the use of Protea FTIR analysers and our chemometric expertise have proved valuable to plant operators. They prove an invaluable tool in process measurements and emissions monitoring. In the laboratory, Protea can deliver instruments with all the chemometric software and support to enable...
Chemical purity of water is assessed for a wide variety of different chemicals depending on the type of water and applicable local legislation.
Chemical analysis of water can include testing for nitrogen compounds, dissolved heavy metals, and total and dissolved organic carbon.
Common water monitoring applications include:
Determination of suspended solids in waterusing for example glass fiber filters.
Chemical analyses of for example heavy metals, dissolved organic carbons (DOC), and ions.
Pulse-Flow respirometers can be used to assess biomass activity for aerobic and anaerobic reactions. In aerobic tests, cultures are combined with nutrients, trace minerals, and an organic substrate – such as acetic acid or ethanol. The maximum oxygen uptake rate reflects the amount of active biomass in the test culture.
Biodegradation tests involve testing samples in response to various parameters: dilution, nutrient addition, pH, temperature, and others. The pattern of oxygen uptake in aerobic tests; nitrogen gas production in anoxic denitrification tests; methane production in methanogenic tests; hydrogen production during glycolysis; and carbon dioxide production during fermentation reactions gives a measure of the rate and extent of biodegradation of the organic constituents of the test sample.
The principle cause of regional and urban haze, or visibility impairment, is light extinction caused by fine particles, sulfates, organic and elemental carbon, nitrates and crustal matter. Particles between 0.1 and one micrometers in size are most effective at scattering light, in addition to being of greatest concern for human health.
The method allows determination of water-soluble forms of inorganic (chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, fluorides and phosphates) and organics (acetates, formates, and oxalates) anions in soils, clays, peats, wastewater silts, activated sludges and bottom sediments by capillary electrophoresis method.
Fluorescence-based oil in water monitors from Turner Designs Hydrocarbon Instruments have been used extensively in industrial water processes for more than 20 years. These low maintenance fluorescence monitors have no significant measurement disturbance from water turbidity or naturally occurring organics in the water. Oil in water monitors can help detect and prevent major oil spills that may cause significant environmental damage and regulatory compliance infractions.
Turbidity in natural waters is recognized as an important indicator of its environmental health, and because it's a good surrogate for suspended sediment, monitoring turbidity has always been the "holy grail" for hydrologists. But because of earlier technology, "turbidity" has traditionally been a "bad word". The DTS-12 turbidity sensor is the first sensor to make turbidity monitoring practical, and no longer difficult, inaccurate, expensive, or labor-intensive.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or murkiness of water...
based in Victoria, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).
Environmental monitoring is becoming more important every day in local, national and international policies, showing the environmental awareness demanded by society.
This fact gives rise to an increase in the amount of legislation that obliges companies to law enforcement. Thus, the necessity of making more pollutants controls means high analysis expenses to the companies, which need to subcontract this service.
Although applications in this area advance, there is still a clear demand to get new portable and...
As a specialist in the evaporation technique GIG Karasek has its complete solutions, from laboratory test, used in many international projects to the overall system. All systems offer high process reliability, thus providing maximum possible system availability.
Naturally occurring organics in raw water are typically removed with chemicals. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzers in the water treatment system can alert technicians when generic organic material is present but cannot differentiate between natural organics, such as algae or decomposed plant matter, and hydrocarbons. Using UV fluorescence technology, a properly configured TD-4100XD can alert operators to upsets caused by hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, fuel oil, and crude oil.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has two stack testing methods for FTIR gas analyzers. Method 320 is an FTIR method for measuring wide range of organic and inorganic pollutants. Method 321 is a specific version for measuring hydrogen chloride HCl at cement kilns producing Portland cement. These methods define a quality assurance and control processes for verifying the accuracy of the results. The requirements for analytical equipment and software are defined on 40 CFR Part 60 Appendix B...
Context & Challenges Volatile organic compounds (VOC) can be dissolved in water. Sometimes water is polluted and to study contamination of VOC in finished drinking water, VOC must be measured. Chromatotec® Solutions Chromatotec® has developed a specific system for the measurement of VOC in water: a Purge & Trap system, the airmoPURGE. The analyzer is coupled with a degasing system allowing the extraction of dissolved gases. The complete system is based on: - 502.2 method from US EPA –...
Direct atomic absorption mercury determination (without any pre-treatment procedures) in food is complicated by its organics matrix. That is the reason why almost all AAS methods of mercury determination in foodstuff include sample digestion by acids.
The industrial chimney's emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are becoming issues of global importance and to have an accurate knowledge about how to test VOC turns into a strategic issue. VOC emissions are quantified and monitored according to standard EN 12619, using FID analyser which uses hydrogen and other reference gases in pressurized cylinder. Operators must then approach the sampling point, often placed several meters from the ground, climbing chimneys of industrial settlements with...
Intrinsic kinetic tests involve adding relatively high concentrations of organic substrate to small concentration of acclimated microorganisms so that the COD/VSS ratio typically is greater than 10. Kinetic parameters are then determined by non-linear modeling using well-known relationships between biological growth and oxygen uptake.
Problem: Organic matter (UV254/TOC) in drinking water can react with chlorine to form harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs). Some removal of TOC is achieved through the conventional drinking water treatment processes, while carbon absorption may be used to further enhance the removal of TOC prior to chlorine disinfection.
The recorded death of fish in the river that flows out of the industrial zone of Scarlino has created the need of the installation of a biological alarm system. The decision was made to work with an automatic system, iTOXcontrol created by microLAN-The Netherlands represented in Italy by Ecotox Lds, which uses marine bacteria. The system compares the values of the light emission from these organisms at the entrance and exit of the canal, generating alarms in the presence of toxic substances.
Digital Pathology is an image-based information environment enabled by virtual microscopy. This involves imaging glass slides and saving and distributing their digital images for analysis, archiving and storage.
The virtual microscopy slides are:
•Scanned — using a microscope based scanning device that takes images of the whole slide via large scanning or stitching of smaller scans. This involves a motorized stage to scan the whole slide. Light source stability is important for scanning in order to prevent...