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oxygen concentrator Applications

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    Oxygen Monitoring from Aerobic and Anaerobic for determination of biodegradation kinetics by respirometry

    Intrinsic kinetic tests involve adding relatively high concentrations of organic substrate to small concentration of acclimated microorganisms so that the COD/VSS ratio typically is greater than 10. Kinetic parameters are then determined by non-linear modeling using well-known relationships between biological growth and oxygen uptake.

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Oxygen monitoring from aerobic and anaerobic for toxicity test

    Toxicity of pure chemicals is assessed using respirometers by adding increasing concentrations to an active culture. The concentration at which oxygen uptake or gas production begins to decrease is known as the “threshold toxicant concentration.”

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

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    Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for brewing industry

    The brewing process generally generates unique, high-strength waste water as a by-product. The waste water typically has a high concentration of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) form the carbohydrates and protein used in brewing beer. Brewery waste water usually has a temperature of > 25 °C.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

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    High quality gas sensor solutions for Controlled Atmosphere (CA) storage

    Precise regulation of O2, CO2 and N2 concentrations. A controlled atmosphere is an agricultural storage method in which the oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations are regulated. The humidity and temperature are also controlled, resulting in a slow loss of quality during prolonged bulk storage of products such as apples, pears, grains, legumes, etc.

    By Edinburgh Instruments Ltd based in Livingston, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Medical Gas Analysis for Process Industry

    USP37 Medical Gas requires a specific, selective and positive identification test using a paramagnetic signal. Regular analysis of medical gas is required to ensure that the oxygen concentration is NLT 99.0% volume. Following the appropriate United States Pharmacopeia standards, in this case specifically USP37, requires an analyzer which uses a paramagnetic based technology.  The Systech Illinois Paramagnetic Oxgyen Analyzer PM700 is perfectly suited for this medical gas analysis application.

    By Systech Instruments Ltd based in Thame, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for process optimisation

    Respiration rate of activated sludge has been recognised as a key controlling element in the modelling of process control, by the International Water Association Task Group. Actual respiration rate of the sludge in the aeration tanks, as well as the endogenous and maximum respiration rates are variables that indicate the rate of BOD removal and aeration requirements. The maximum respiration rate is also closely linked to the Critical Oxygen Concentration point, that is, the point at which diffusion over the bacterial cell walls ceases and therefore biodegradation is significantly compromised.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Air control for wastewater treatment aeration

    Aeration Process Introduction: Waste Water Treatment removes impurities and contaminants from a com¬munity`s sewage utilizing a number of different processes and a variety of equipment. One of the processes is the use of surface aerated basins that use aerobic micro-organisms to remove 80 to 90% of organic matter in waste water. Oxygen concentration in the water basins is a critical factor to promote the optimum micro-organism growth rate needed to treat the water in the shortest amount of time. As a result, large compressors are used to force air through hundreds of air diffusion filters at the bottom of the aeration basins, providing a constant 24/7 supply of oxygen to the micro-organisms in the water.

    By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).

  • Computerized instrumentation for the medical gas flow and scientific research

    Environics gas mixing, blending and dilution systems provide for precise mixing of gases for a wide variety of clinical applications. Our systems can produce gas concentrations from percent to ppb levels for single or multi-point calibration. The high accuracy of our mixers make them the units of choice for a wide variety of laboratory and research applications. For example, Environics Biological Atmosphere Incubation Mixers provide stable and accurate gas mixes for any laboratory or clinical need. You can generate the specific reduced oxygen environments needed for anerobes as well as the enriched oxygen environments needed in a variety of cellular, viral and high density culture applications. Systems can also be used to create a specific and stable gaseous environment in a clean room. In all cases, the Environics Atmosphere Mixers allow you to use less expensive single-gas cylinders or bulk tanks in place of a high number of expensive blended cylinders.

    By Environics, Inc. based in Tolland, CONNECTICUT (USA).

  • Filamentous Bulking Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Basis of Control with Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen peroxide may be used to correct a serious filamentous bulking situation or, preferably, to prevent one from occurring until adjustments can be made to remove the cause. When applied to the return activated sludge, hydrogen peroxide supplies dissolved oxygen which helps restore the microbial activity necessary for effective operation, while selectively oxidizing the filaments which retard settling. The effective dose of hydrogen peroxide is a function of time and concentration, and varies from plant to plant. To correct a serious bulking problem, immediate results may be obtained by adding 100 - 200 mg/L H2O2 to the biosolids recycle line. Once control of bulking is obtained, the dose may be reduced to 25 - 50 mg/L H2O2 to prevent re-occurrence. Practical Considerations Filamentous bulking of municipal activated sludge is not a normal occurrence, and suggests more fundamental problems may be at work (e.g., low dissolved oxygen, high sulfide input, heavy organic loading, nutrient imbalance, improper sludge age, or rapid changes in influent characteristics). Consequently, the use of chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide to control bulking should be pursued in concurrently with more fundamental corrective measures.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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