The pH value and the conductivity have to be determined quasi-continuously at numerous locations in a power plant. The pH value is a key parameter to control the amount of lithium hydroxide that has to be added to the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor; in water steam circuits, the pH value controls the amount of added amines. The conductivity indicates the amount of dissolved minerals. It is a measure of the water purity and is one of the most important parameters for any chemical control program in a power plant. It is determined at numerous sampling points in the power plant, for example, in the cooling water circuit, in feed and makeup water, at the outlet of the condensate pump, and in the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor.
By Metrohm AG based in Herisau, SWITZERLAND.
Drinking water supply and distribution systems around the world (a critical and interdependent component of a nation’s infrastructure) are vulnerable to both intentional and accidental contamination. Unusual water quality may serve as a warning of potential contamination. The available physico-chemical sensors utilize general water quality parameters, such as free chlorine, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chloride, ammonia, nitrate to detect the contamination. Generally, one or more of these water quality parameters will change due to the injection of a contaminant. However, no single chemical sensor responds to all possible contaminants nor can they give any indication of the potential toxicity of complex mixtures.
By microLAN B.V. based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.
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