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primary water treatment Applications

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    Wastewater treatment solutions for mining and primary metals industry

    Water is essential component in the mining and steel industries. The main needs under this aspect are optimizing the management of the resources, improving productivity by treating available water for specific production process requirements and managing environmental risks by treating contaminated pond and underground mine water to remove suspended solids and in particular heavy metals (SS), arsenic and other contaminants for safe discharge into sensitive environment.

    By IDRAFLOT based in Zoppola, ITALY.

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    Albin peristaltic`s pumps for water treatment

    Pumping / transfert / dosing of sewage thickened, sludge dewatered, sludge clarifier, waste activated sludge, digested sludge, primary sludge, lime milk, raw sludge, sodium hypochlorite, ferric chloride, sodium bisulphite, fluoride, polymers, aqueous am­monia, potassium permanganate, caustic soda.

    By Albin Pump SAS based in Montelimar, FRANCE.

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    Water Treatment Solutions for Nitrate Removal

    Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined nitrogen, particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure, especially from feedlots. The primary inorganic nitrates which may contaminate drinking water are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which are widely used as fertilizers. According to the Toxics Release Inventory, releases to water and land totaled over 112 million pounds from 1991 through 1993.

    By Adedge Water Technologies, LLC based in Buford, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Water treatment solutions for the mining & metallurgy industry

    Contaminated mine water is generated when rock containing sulphidic minerals is exposed to water and oxygen, resulting in the production of acidity and high concentrations of metals and sulphate in the water. Mine drainage, process water and storm water associated with industrial activities are the main types of water produced in mining operation. The two primary aims of the treatment of contaminated mine water are to neutralize acidity and removal metals. Lenntech provides sustainable complete water treatment solutions for mining industry considering a wide range of technologies and strategies.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delft, NETHERLANDS.

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    Water treatment for power plants

    The process of electricity generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas is water-intensive. Between 40-50% of all water abstracted and used in developed countries is used in the generation of electricity. Thus, a reliable, abundant and predictable source of raw water supply to a power plant is a critical factor in site selection. Water supplies are required to provide various process waters for the following essential main purposes such as make-up water, cooling water for steam turbine condensers, and auxiliary plant cooling water.

    The primary application of modern water treatment technology is to maintain the integrity and performance of the power plant. Critical plant applications have water purity or conditioning requirements that must be adhered to for safe, reliable and efficient power generation.

    Experience has shown that integration of water technology treatments with power plant design can be very important in reducing operational problems and component failures 

    At power plant worldwide there are increasing limitations on water availability and environmental restrictions on discharges. This is expected to promote measures for water conservation and to have an increasing influence on water treatment decisions. At power plant, the recycling of internal wastewater streams can extend from the recovery of individual high-quality waste streams, which can be reused either directly or after only limited treatment, through to the development of fully integrated water/wastewater treatment systems for zero liquid discharge. However, the application of reuse schemes requires site-specific assessment, as not all waters may be viable options for recovery.

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    Ultraviolet disinfection systems for the wastewater industry

    UV technology has made tremendous gains in the last 25 years and is now recognised as a primary method of disinfecting waste water. atg UV Technology have researched the wastewater industry and identified the need for a range of compact closed chamber UV systems, which are easy to install into a pipeline, can deal with a wide range of water qualities and offer a high output within a small foot print. The advanced range of atg UV systems have successfully treated a wide range of fluids, in many different industries and have been installed on traditional and specialist wastewater treatment works worldwide.

    By atg UV Technology based in Wigan, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Environmental dewatering solutions for municipal sewage and wastewater treatment

    TenCate Geotube technology dewaters primary, secondary and overflow sludge from the sewage treatment plants’ digesters and lagoons. This municipal dewatering solution is used in water and wastewater treatment applications including lagoons, tanks, and digester cleanouts.  The containers can provide dewatering and containment in one operation, with 85% to 90% reduction of BOD in the effluent. Most of the time, the dewatered effluent is clear and safe enough to be returned to the sewage treatment plants.

    By TenCate Geosynthetics Netherlands bv based in AE in Nijverdal, NETHERLANDS.

  • Removal of organic compounds & toxity for wastewater treatment industry

    Federal and State regulatory agencies are increasingly requiring additional water quality testing and controls of the toxicity of discharges to receiving streams. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) helps meet these pollution regulations. If organic chemicals have been identified as contributing to discharge toxicity, Calgon Carbon Corporation can work with facilities, and their engineering firms, to help meet stringent criteria associated with their NPDES permit. GAC can be employed as a cost-effective treatment for removal of organic compounds and toxicity. Even in situations where activated sludge treatment or powdered activated carbon is used for primary wastewater treatment, post treatment with GAC may be necessary to achieve toxicity compliance.

    By Calgon Carbon Corporation based in Pittsburgh, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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    Water treatment solutions for the Tourism hotels and (golf) resorts sector

    Access to clean and safe water has primary importance for tourism in hotel and resorts industry. This can be for drinking water in remote island location, swimming pool make-up water and (golf) resorts irrigation water. Furthermore, the need to deal with wastewater in a sustainable manner is now seen as essential for the ongoing potential of a tourism destination. Lenntech provides sustainable complete water treatment solutions in tourism and residential industry considering a wide range of technologies and strategies.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delft, NETHERLANDS.

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    Ultraviolet disinfection systems for the advanced oxidation processes (AOP)

    Advanced Oxidation reactions are an extension of the process whereby UV alone is used to reduce Total Organic Carbon (TOC) through the lysing of water molecules into hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) are produced with the help of one or more primary oxidants (usually ozone or hydrogen peroxide) and ultraviolet light. This reactive species is the strongest oxidant that can be applied in water and can oxidize virtually any compound present in the water.

    By atg UV Technology based in Wigan, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Force Main Systems Sulfide Odor Control with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Force main systems are typically high sulfide odor generators due to septicity conditions related to full pipe flow and a greater anaerobic slime layer (biofilm) thickness. Primary factors that influence sulfide loading generation in a force main include sewage temperature, BOD, retention time, pipe size and flow. Gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) release at the force main discharge is usually the main concern related to odor and corrosion control needs; however, corrosion problems within the pipe can be of a concern (e.g. "crown cutting") at locations where air pockets can lead to concentrated H2S gas build up. Some basic considerations for assessing an appropriate sulfide odor treatment method for force main systems include: Retention time / duration of control Pump station type / cycling (e.g. vfd; start/stop, etc). Force main injection tap points, if any (e.g. air relief valves) Existence of intermediate re-lift stations or in series pump stations Manifold force main systems

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Headworks Odor and Corrosion Control Using Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide typically controls odors and corrosion at treatment plant headworks by direct oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) within the wastewater. In the direct oxidation mode, H2O2 is applied to the wastewater 5-30 minutes prior to the point where the odors are being released, generally as the wastewater line enters the plant boundary. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide treatment depends upon the available reaction time, the level of iron in the wastewater (reaction catalyst), wastewater pH and temperature, and the initial and target levels of H2S odor. Under optimal conditions, effective dose ratios are 1.2 - 1.5 parts H2O2 per part dissolved sulfide, and can be reliably estimated through beaker tests. H2O2 + H2S → S0 + 2H2O Frequently, control of odors through the primary clarifiers is wanted. In such case, the mechanism of control is both direct oxidation of H2S (as it rises from the solids blanket), and prevention of odor generation (by supplying dissolved oxygen). Control is typically achieved with a booster dose of 1-2 mg/L H2O2 added to the clarifier influent. Higher doses or alternate modes of addition may be required in cases where: 1) hydraulic retention times are > 2-3 hours; 2) solids blanket depths are > 1-2 feet; 3) soluble BOD levels are > 200-300 mg/L; or 4) waste activated sludge is co-settled with the primary solids. 2H2O2 → O2 + 2H2O

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Wastewater treatment solutions for chemical industry

    Water is one of the most important solvent or component in the chemicals production industry. From the production of water as a solvent for formulas, to the water used for mixers and reactors washing operations, the management of the whole water cycle from inlet to final discharge is a primary importance issue to face.

    By IDRAFLOT based in Zoppola, ITALY.

  • Real-time In-situ Effluent Monitoring

    The UviLux BOD Indicator enables in-situ, real-time, reporting of BOD within both natural water systems and water processing plants. The monitor detects fluorescent proteins that are inherent within sewage and slurry and provides an output in BOD equivalent units. The principle behind the measurement is the excitation of Tryptophan-like fluorescence within UV wavelength band, which has been shown to correlate with both BOD and bacterial contamination. With complete flexibility of deployment methodology, the UviLux BOD Indicator can be applied to both water supply and water recovery processing plants. For water supply processing, the UviLux BOD Indicator can be applied at the front end to the water intake to provide alarm of any contaminated water entering the plant. Applications within Waste Water Treatment Works can include monitoring of effluent levels at the final outflow point (into rivers and coastal areas) as well as the primary, secondary & tertiary stages, the data potentially feeding into energy saving systems to optimise process performances. The CTG UviLux BOD Indicator in-situ fluorometer can also be used within pipe and channel networks to test for incidences of black water and grey water cross-over.

    By Chelsea Technologies Group based in West Molesey, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Sustainable solutions for oil & gas industry

    thinkstep offers the most comprehensive Life cycle Inventory with over 700 data sets. 200+ data sets on upstream production, processing and transportation, representing different production technologies - primary, secondary, EOR, unconventional (shale, tight, CBM, deep water and oil sands). Natural boundaries - drilling depth or flaring & venting rates, energy efficiency, and water treatment efficiency – are taken into consideration.

    By thinkstep based in Leinfelden-Echterdingen, GERMANY.

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