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scale treatment Applications

  • Liquid Rock - Prevening Scale Formation from Ground Water Hardness

    Groundwater is in contact with soil and rock minerals. Significant amounts of the minerals are dissolved in the groundwater. Elevated water hardness is the result of the water interaction and partial dissolution of carbonate minerals. Scale formation is a crystallisation process. Crystals are a highly organised arrangement of molecules. The determining circumstances for a successful crystallisation event include concentration, temperature, pressure and chemical environment. Suitable conditions for the formation of a crystal require numerous factors to coincide. CALSTAT RO-30 provides crystallisation interference at a molecular level :  Excellent results are achieved at low trace quantities of product. Calstat RO-30 dosed at trace levels of 4-10 kg per million litres  Corrosion on steel surfaces is reduced or eliminated  For drinking water production with RO (reverse osmosis) systems, membrane fouling is reduced. The water additive

    By WAT Australia Pty.Ltd. based in West Australia, AUSTRALIA.

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    Advanced water treatment equipments for deionization

    Deionized water, also known as demineralized water (DI water or de-ionized water; can also be spelled deionised water), is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization.

    By Advanced Equipment and Services based in Hollywood, FLORIDA (USA).

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    Chemical Water Treatment for membrane treatments

    Membrane units, in our days are widely used in the water pre-treatment preparation and are becoming one of the most important technologies in the production of high pure water. Nevertheless they often face problems with scaling and fouling and are therefore limited by frequent maintenance, downtime and high costs. Our treatment programs are specifically designed for membrane units like reverse osmosis, ultra- and nanofiltration and enable to remove or preventive control scaling and fouling. Our main target is to run these plants under environmentally friendly and beneficial economic conditions. Special attention is given to an efficient utilization of energy as well as saving precious water. Kurita develops an efficient and effective treatment concept achieving an optimal economic operation and a maximum operational reliability of a plant.

    By Kurita based in Tokyo, JAPAN.

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    Process water treatment

    Process water covers the wide range of boiler feed water, cooling water for heat exchangers or engine, chemicals dilution, etc. It should typically have a conductivity ranging from 0,1 to 50 uS/cm, with little to no hardness to avoid scaling in heating system. Oxygen and carbon dioxide should be removed to prevent corrosion. Depending on your application, the water quality requirements can vary: Boiler feed water characteristic. Cooling water quality. Tap water or fresh groundwater are the most widely used source of water to produce process water.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delfgauw, NETHERLANDS.

  • Hydrocyclones for quench water treatment

    Cost Effective Protection with Krebs Hydrocyclones for Quench Water Treatment. High Efficiency products to remove mill scale in steel plants and metal forming applications.

    By FLSmidth KREBS based in Tucson, ARIZONA (USA).

  • Electrodeionization

    The Fractional Electrodeionization (FEDI) process is an advancement of conventional EDI. The patented dual voltage process allows for a higher flexibility and tolerance to inlet water conditions, thus lowering the risk of scaling, and improving the plant& design economics and reliability. By incorporating a two-stage separation process with different voltages the FEDI process is able to: Achieve a higher hardness tolerance by having distinctly different concentrate chambers with separate reject streams and thus reducing the potential of hardness scaling. Optimize power consumption by using higher electrical current only where required. Ensure the best water quality, continuously consistently by removing a major part of the deionization load in the hardness removal zone, while residual ionic impurities are effectively removed in the silica removal zone;, which stays in a polishing mode.

    By QUA Group LLC based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Non-chemical water treatment in hospitals

    Hospitals using hardwater can suffer from serious scaling in water heaters , sterilisers and elsewhere. Fluid Dynamics has a simple non chemical solution to the problems of hospital scaling. Fluid Dynamics also has solutions to the problems of legionella risk in hospitals

    By Fluid Dynamics International Ltd based in Maidenhead, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Chlorine Dioxide Water Treatment for Power Plants

    Chlorine dioxide is a significant product in the control of algae, planktonic and sessile bacteria, bio-film and scale in power plants, cooling towers, loops and cooling systems. CleanOxide helps maintain the efficiency of heat exchanger surfaces, reservoir intakes and ancillary equipment. Traditional oxidising agents such as chlorine and bromine, on the other hand, are associated with pH constraints and corrosion problems.

    By NW Solutions based in Perth, AUSTRALIA.

  • Industrial water demineralisation

    Deionized water, also known as demineralised water, is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate and even silica. Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion exchange resins which exchange hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion for dissolved minerals, which then recombine to form water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup.

    By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.

  • EDI Solutions

    QUA’s FEDI® (Fractional EDI) stacks have superior hardness tolerance compared to the other EDI products on the market. With a dual voltage process this allows for a higher flexibility and tolerance to inlet water conditions, thus lowering the risk of scaling, and improving the plant's design economics and reliability. FEDI stacks are available in three different models which can be applied either for higher hardness tolerance or high water flow rates. MEGA FEDI stacks are ideal for large capacity, high flow systems normally required in heavy industrial projects such as power, petrochemicals, & electronics for high purity water needs. Each stack can handle treated water flow of up to 75 GPM . MEGA FEDI’s unique stackable design minimizes piping, reduces footprint, and makes it simple and easy to install on skids. FEDI-Rx products are specially designed for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical and laboratory applications where installations require hot water sanitization to meet

    By QUA Group LLC based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Water quality monitoring systems for cooling water treatment industry

    A number of treatment products are often added to prevent corrosion, scaling and fouling. Coating of sensors and other effects of these products must be taken into account when selecting analyzers. Discharge monitoring needs special attention because zero measurements must be reliable over time with little maintenance.

    By SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG based in Hinwil, SWITZERLAND.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for cleaning

    Deposits in water systems, especially in heat exchangers, result in a significant heat transfer reduction, in low efficiency and a loss of cooling capacity. Some systems, after long operational periods without any water conditioning or with inadequate treatment, need cleaning. Therefore Kurita Water Solutions proposes acidic, alkaline and neutral cleaners to remove deposits, scale, fouling, dirt, grime or impurities.

    By Kurita based in Tokyo, JAPAN.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for cooling and processing water

    An optimal heat transfer is the most important point in every water cooled process. Scale, corrosion and biofouling negatively affect the heat transfer. Therefore Kurita develops for cooling and process water systems customized solutions, based on the combined treatments of scale & fouling prevention, corrosion inhibition, and biocides.

    By Kurita based in Tokyo, JAPAN.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for boiler water & heating systems

    In nearly all industrial areas steam is needed for different aims e.g. steam for process side, heating purpose or the generation of electricity. To reach the best efficiency of the boiler system an optimal boiler water treatment is essential. Disturbances in boilers caused by deposits, scaling, corrosion, local overheating or carryover into the steam reduce the operating safety and could lead to tremendous economic damages. Kurita delivers innovative technologies to prevent scale and corrosion in the whole boiler system - feed water tank, boiler, steam and condensate system.

    By Kurita based in Tokyo, JAPAN.

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    Water treatment chemicals solutions for pulp and paper industry

    In the manufacturing of pulp, the raw material for paper, problems such as the piercing and ripping of paper occur due to calcium carbonate and other scales and pitch deposits (adhesives contained in wood and old paper). To prevent these problems, Kurita Water Industries offers a range of water treatment chemicals such as anti-scale agents and pitch control agents. For the paper-forming process that produces paper from pulp, we offer water treatment chemicals such as slime control agents that help improve the paper quality by removing the bacteria and fungi in the water that dissolved pulp. We also provide yield and drainage improvers that help improve production efficiency by making drainage better.

    By Kurita based in Tokyo, JAPAN.

  • Wastewater Treatment for Car Wash

    Our current solution is based on several years of experience with water treatment for car wash systems using Rotating Bed Biofilm Reactor technology (RBBR). When combined with a flotation unit, solids are separated from the water, most of which can be recycled back to the washing system. Rotating Bed Bio Reactor (RBBR) developed by Clewer and specific microbe population are patented and suitable for use larger scale applications.

    By Clewer OY based in Turku, FINLAND.

  • Desalination Thermal Multiple Effect Distillation (MED)

    Aquatech’s Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) Desalination technology, using a spray film™ design, has been developed and improved over decades of in- house research and onsite experience of such systems worldwide to provide an environmentally friendly system to meet the global challenges of a reduced carbon footprint. Production capacity up to 10 MIGD (45,500 m3/day) in a single unit: Significantly lowers electrical consumption Design flexibility to use low to medium pressure supply steam Minimum down time and therefore a higher plant availability factor High purity product water Operates at a low top brine temperature (<70 °C) to minimize scaling and to prevent corrosion Allows use of lower cost but reliable and proven metallurgy Use of Thermo Vapor Compressor to increase efficiency

    By Aquatech International Corporation based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Resin technology solutions for the softening & demineralization - industrial sector

    Industrial water softening is a process that utilizes ion exchange resins to reduce the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. These alkaline earth metals can cause scaling and insolubility problems in the everyday uses of water by forming calcium and magnesium carbonate scales.

    By Purolite Corporation based in Bala Cynwyd, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for food industry

    The first UASB pilot plant was installed in the 1970’s at a beet sugar company in The Netherlands (CSM suiker). Thereafter, a large number of full scale plants were installed throughout The Netherlands at sugar refineries, potato starch processing plants, and other food industries, as well as paper recycling plants.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

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