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scale treatment Applications

  • Liquid Rock - Prevening Scale Formation from Ground Water Hardness

    Groundwater is in contact with soil and rock minerals. Significant amounts of the minerals are dissolved in the groundwater. Elevated water hardness is the result of the water interaction and partial dissolution of carbonate minerals. Scale formation is a crystallisation process. Crystals are a highly organised arrangement of molecules. The determining circumstances for a successful crystallisation event include concentration, temperature, pressure and chemical environment. Suitable conditions for the formation of a crystal require numerous factors to coincide. CALSTAT RO-30 provides crystallisation interference at a molecular level :  Excellent results are achieved at low trace quantities of product. Calstat RO-30 dosed at trace levels of 4-10 kg per million litres  Corrosion on steel surfaces is reduced or eliminated  For drinking water production with RO (reverse osmosis) systems, membrane fouling is reduced. The water additive

    By WAT Australia Pty.Ltd. based in West Australia, AUSTRALIA.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for membrane treatments

    Membrane units, in our days are widely used in the water pre-treatment preparation and are becoming one of the most important technologies in the production of high pure water. Nevertheless they often face problems with scaling and fouling and are therefore limited by frequent maintenance, downtime and high costs. Our treatment programs are specifically designed for membrane units like reverse osmosis, ultra- and nanofiltration and enable to remove or preventive control scaling and fouling. Our main target is to run these plants under environmentally friendly and beneficial economic conditions. Special attention is given to an efficient utilization of energy as well as saving precious water. Kurita develops an efficient and effective treatment concept achieving an optimal economic operation and a maximum operational reliability of a plant.

    By Kurita based in Ludwigshafen, GERMANY.

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    The Fractional Electrodeionization (FEDI) process is an advancement of conventional EDI. The patented dual voltage process allows for a higher flexibility and tolerance to inlet water conditions, thus lowering the risk of scaling, and improving the plant& design economics and reliability. By incorporating a two-stage separation process with different voltages the FEDI process is able to: Achieve a higher hardness tolerance by having distinctly different concentrate chambers with separate reject streams and thus reducing the potential of hardness scaling. Optimize power consumption by using higher electrical current only where required. Ensure the best water quality, continuously consistently by removing a major part of the deionization load in the hardness removal zone, while residual ionic impurities are effectively removed in the silica removal zone;, which stays in a polishing mode.

    By QUA Group LLC based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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    Advanced water treatment equipments for deionization

    Deionized water, also known as demineralized water (DI water or de-ionized water; can also be spelled deionised water), is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations from sodium, calcium, iron, copper and anions such as chloride and bromide. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which bind to and filter out the mineral salts from water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup. However, deionization does not significantly remove uncharged organic molecules, viruses or bacteria, except by incidental trapping in the resin. Specially made strong base anion resins can remove Gram-negative bacteria. Deionization can be done continuously and inexpensively using electrodeionization.

    By Advanced Equipment and Services, Inc. (AESINC) based in Coconut Creek, FLORIDA (USA).

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    Process water treatment

    Process water covers the wide range of boiler feed water, cooling water for heat exchangers or engine, chemicals dilution, etc. It should typically have a conductivity ranging from 0,1 to 50 uS/cm, with little to no hardness to avoid scaling in heating system. Oxygen and carbon dioxide should be removed to prevent corrosion. Depending on your application, the water quality requirements can vary: Boiler feed water characteristic. Cooling water quality. Tap water or fresh groundwater are the most widely used source of water to produce process water.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delft, NETHERLANDS.

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    Non-chemical water treatment in hospitals

    Hospitals using hardwater can suffer from serious scaling in water heaters , sterilisers and elsewhere. Fluid Dynamics has a simple non chemical solution to the problems of hospital scaling. Fluid Dynamics also has solutions to the problems of legionella risk in hospitals

    By Fluid Dynamics International Ltd based in Maidenhead, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    EDI Solutions

    QUA’s FEDI® (Fractional EDI) stacks have superior hardness tolerance compared to the other EDI products on the market. With a dual voltage process this allows for a higher flexibility and tolerance to inlet water conditions, thus lowering the risk of scaling, and improving the plant's design economics and reliability. FEDI stacks are available in three different models which can be applied either for higher hardness tolerance or high water flow rates. MEGA FEDI stacks are ideal for large capacity, high flow systems normally required in heavy industrial projects such as power, petrochemicals, & electronics for high purity water needs. Each stack can handle treated water flow of up to 75 GPM . MEGA FEDI’s unique stackable design minimizes piping, reduces footprint, and makes it simple and easy to install on skids. FEDI-Rx products are specially designed for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical and laboratory applications where installations require hot water sanitization to meet

    By QUA Group LLC based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Waste gas treatment for the LED industry

    Market analysts predict sustained growth in demand in the LED industry. After LED backlighting for the small LC displays of mobile phones and the LC displays of larger screens in the television market, the next potential growth market is the lighting industry: Sales of LEDs in this market in 2012 are almost USD 3.5 billion – thus nearly doubling since 2010. Analysts are expecting a growth of more than USD 7 billion in 2014 and believe that the total market for LEDs should peak at USD 17.7 billion.* A mass market of this scale for LEDs also means increasing emissions that need to be abated by specific waste gas treatment systems at the point of use. In the manufacture of products based on innovative light emitting diode (LED) technology, ammonia and hydrogen are used in large quantities as process gases. The environmental engineers at DAS have recognised this market trend and developed new solutions such as LARCH for waste gas treatment in MOCVD processes.

    By DAS Environmental Expert GmbH based in Dresden, GERMANY.

  • Waste gas treatment for the TFT industry

    Manufacturing TFT/LCD displays requires waste gas treatment as well. Processes that produce large scale Thinfilm Transistors (TFT) on glass substrates, for instance, use Chemical Vapour Deposition – CVD – to separate the thin films onto the material. The process requires cleaning the process chamber periodically and usually employs etching with NF3. Etching of the separated thin films typically utilises CF4, SF6 and chlorinated gases, which release large amounts of waste gas mixtures.

    By DAS Environmental Expert GmbH based in Dresden, GERMANY.

  • Industrial water demineralisation

    Deionized water, also known as demineralised water, is water that has had its mineral ions removed, such as cations like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and anions such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate, bicarbonate and even silica. Deionization is a chemical process that uses specially manufactured ion exchange resins which exchange hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion for dissolved minerals, which then recombine to form water. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup.

    By PuriTech Ltd based in Herentals, BELGIUM.

  • Water quality monitoring systems for cooling water treatment industry

    A number of treatment products are often added to prevent corrosion, scaling and fouling. Coating of sensors and other effects of these products must be taken into account when selecting analyzers. Discharge monitoring needs special attention because zero measurements must be reliable over time with little maintenance.

    By SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG based in Hinwil, SWITZERLAND.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for cooling and processing water

    An optimal heat transfer is the most important point in every water cooled process. Scale, corrosion and biofouling negatively affect the heat transfer. Therefore Kurita develops for cooling and process water systems customized solutions, based on the combined treatments of scale & fouling prevention, corrosion inhibition, and biocides.

    By Kurita based in Ludwigshafen, GERMANY.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for boiler water & heating systems

    In nearly all industrial areas steam is needed for different aims e.g. steam for process side, heating purpose or the generation of electricity. To reach the best efficiency of the boiler system an optimal boiler water treatment is essential. Disturbances in boilers caused by deposits, scaling, corrosion, local overheating or carryover into the steam reduce the operating safety and could lead to tremendous economic damages. Kurita delivers innovative technologies to prevent scale and corrosion in the whole boiler system - feed water tank, boiler, steam and condensate system.

    By Kurita based in Ludwigshafen, GERMANY.

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    Chemical Water Treatment for cleaning

    Deposits in water systems, especially in heat exchangers, result in a significant heat transfer reduction, in low efficiency and a loss of cooling capacity. Some systems, after long operational periods without any water conditioning or with inadequate treatment, need cleaning. Therefore Kurita Water Solutions proposes acidic, alkaline and neutral cleaners to remove deposits, scale, fouling, dirt, grime or impurities.

    By Kurita based in Ludwigshafen, GERMANY.

  • Wastewater Treatment for Car Wash

    Our current solution is based on several years of experience with water treatment for car wash systems using Rotating Bed Biofilm Reactor technology (RBBR). When combined with a flotation unit, solids are separated from the water, most of which can be recycled back to the washing system. Rotating Bed Bio Reactor (RBBR) developed by Clewer and specific microbe population are patented and suitable for use larger scale applications.

    By Clewer OY based in Turku, FINLAND.

  • Desalination Thermal Multiple Effect Distillation (MED)

    Aquatech’s Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) Desalination technology, using a spray film™ design, has been developed and improved over decades of in- house research and onsite experience of such systems worldwide to provide an environmentally friendly system to meet the global challenges of a reduced carbon footprint. Production capacity up to 10 MIGD (45,500 m3/day) in a single unit: Significantly lowers electrical consumption Design flexibility to use low to medium pressure supply steam Minimum down time and therefore a higher plant availability factor High purity product water Operates at a low top brine temperature (<70 °C) to minimize scaling and to prevent corrosion Allows use of lower cost but reliable and proven metallurgy Use of Thermo Vapor Compressor to increase efficiency

    By Aquatech International Corporation based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Biological waste water treatment plants solutions for food industry

    The first UASB pilot plant was installed in the 1970’s at a beet sugar company in The Netherlands (CSM suiker). Thereafter, a large number of full scale plants were installed throughout The Netherlands at sugar refineries, potato starch processing plants, and other food industries, as well as paper recycling plants.

    By HydroThane STP BV based in KC `s Hertogenbosch, NETHERLANDS.

  • Desalination Thermal Multi Stage Flash Technology (MSF)

    Aquatech MSF ( Multi Stage Flash) Desalination technology was developed more than fifty years ago, and were some of the first to install large size MSF equipment plants in Saudi Arabia, a key market in desalination. With our depth of technological expertise and experience in operating plants, we are positioned to offer the best support in design optimization and rehabilitation of existing facilities. Uses low pressure steam as heat source Highly reliable, and simple to operate & maintain Simpler supply water pretreatment Minimum down time so, higher availability factor High purity product water Provides thermal energy efficiency similar to the MED process Operates at a top brine temperature <110 °C to minimize scaling and to prevent corrosion

    By Aquatech International Corporation based in Canonsburg, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).


    Scalewatcher North America, manufacturer of the original, patented and award-winning computerized electronic water-conditioner, states in its literature that the device is produced to last at least 20 years and comes with a 10 year warranty. However, no reports have been received on the longevity of the units sold since the company was launched over 20 years ago. Now a customer in Gilroy, California has come forward requesting a new Scalewatcher unit after the device she purchased in 1992 finally stopped working. She purchased the new Scalewatcher from local dealer, Aqua Genesis, and reported that: “ I noticed that the sprinklers are covering more of an area than before. When I squirt water on the black and white tile patio table there are no longer any calcium spots even if I do not dry it off. The tile shower and the clear shower door are easier to wipe down after my shower. The new ScaleWatcher is much better than before. It certainly was time to replace the old one.” The new, innovative, electronic Scalewatcher water conditioner uses proven technology to quickly and effectively dissolve existing limescale and prevent it recurring, returning water systems and water-fed appliances such as kettles, washing machines and dishwashers to their former efficiency. It also removes scale around faucets, sinks, baths, plugholes and shower roses as well as preventing white marks on shower screens and mould on shower curtains. The system requires no plumbing, chemicals or maintenance and is environmentally friendly. In addition scale costs money for householders through additional cleaning products, the early renewal of water–fed equipment and additional costs to heat water. It is estimated that 40% more energy is needed to heat water in a system fouled with ¼ inch of limescale. Commenting Jan de Baat Doelman, President of Scalewatcher North America says: “We have always built Scalewatcher electronic water conditions to last and this latest information confirms the device’s longevity. Scalewatcher will pay for itself in less than three years and then carry on providing homes with a scale free environment many more years to come. ” Scalewatcher models are based on continuous research and over 20 years experience and expertise as market leaders in electronic scale control with countless units sold worldwide. The patented Scalewatcher systems start at $248.00 USD and are capable of treating pipe sizes from one to 120 inches. All Scalewatcher systems come with a full performance guarantee and include free shipping throughout North America.

    By Scalewatcher North America Inc. based in Oxford, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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