Quality control to maximize efficiency is critical in the competitive photovoltaic industry. For some time solar texture has been thought to qualitatively affect solar cell efficiency. However, through large-area, 3D measurements and areal feature parameters, quantitative correlation of texture to efficiency has only recently been obtained. We now know that ISO 3D surface parameters linearly correlate with solar cell efficiency.
By Bruker Corporation based in Billerica, MASSACHUSETTS (USA).
In the earlier days, the chemistry involved in solar cell manufacturing was relatively simple, using commodity chemicals. With cell efficiencies continuously on the rise and new cell concepts slowly being introduced with increased speed of processing, precise chemical concentration control is becoming crucial to obtain consistency and more cost-effective manufacturing of solar panels. This is possible by monitoring on-line the etching bath composition, a small but genuine step forward in your competitive advantage.
Typical parameters: NaOH – Si – HF – HNO3
By AppliTek NV based in Nazareth, BELGIUM.
Generating solar energy is considered `green technology`, even though the production of solar cells based on silicon predominantly uses process stages that have been common practice in the semiconductor industry for many years. As in the semiconductor industry the production of solar cells employs dangerous and environmentally harmful substances, which require abatement according to legal provisions. The production of photovoltaic cells therefore is subject to strict requirements for treatment of waste gases and wastewater. Solutions need to be easy and cost-effective. The contaminated wastewaters and waste gases should, under no circumstances, lower performance, endanger the health and safety of humans, or otherwise negatively affect the availability of production facilities. The safety of the production line must be guaranteed at every step and in every operating situation.
By DAS Environmental Expert GmbH based in Dresden, GERMANY.
The manufacturing process of the cells that make up the photovoltaic systems and the printed circuits require water in quantity and high quality. This water has to be managed wisely so as not to affect the productivity and the expenses of the plant.
By EVALED-Evaporator based in Zoppola (PN), ITALY.
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