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sulfur oxide Applications

  • Total Reduced Sulfur (S) monitoring

    Total reduced sulfur(s), which include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (methanethiol, CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3), occur naturally in the environment and can also be present in numerous industrial gaseous streams – petroleum refining, natural gas extraction, and chemical operations like the pulp/paper industry. Hydrogen sulfide is the most prevalent of the total reduced sulfurs, and is commonly found in volcanic gases, marshes and swamps, wetlands and mud flats, sulfur springs and decaying organic matter. Additionally, hydrogen sulfide is produced by living organisms, including human beings, through the digestion and metabolization of sulfur-containing materials. It must be noted that sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide (SO3) and sulfuric acid mist are not included in the determination of TRS, as these are oxidized sulfur compounds and are permitted and monitored separately from TRS.

    By Ecotech Pty Ltd based in Knoxfield, AUSTRALIA.

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Agricultural Industry

    Particulate and gaseous control on Bagasse and Biomass fueled boilers. Sugar scrubbing and recovery. Removal of sulfur dioxide and ethylene oxide from fruit and vegetable ripening and drying rooms.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Petroleum/Petrochemical Industry

    Scrubbing of Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans and other organosulfur compounds from sour gas and other sources. Proprietary regenerative scrubbing chemistries for hydrogen sulfide removal with sulfur production. By-product production systems for producing sodium hydrosulfide (Nash) from hydrogen sulfide. Sulfur dioxide scrubbing. Recover catalyst dust from FCC units. HCL storage tank vent scrubbing. Removal of HCL and particulate from thermal oxidizers burning chlorinated plastics. Marine drilling platforms sulfur dioxide thermal oxidizer emissions.  Asphalt plant scrubbers and hydrogen sulfide emissions from holding tanks. Pilot plant scrubber systems for hydrogen sulfide. Removal of halogenated and sulfur bearing gaseous compounds from high temperature thermal oxidizers and drilling platforms waste. Well drilling hydrochloric acid storage tanks.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) applications

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an emerging method of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of power plants. In a process called ‘scrubbing’, the carbon dioxide emissions can be absorbed into chemical solvents consisting of amines or carbonates. Scrubbing is a well-established method of carbon capture, with virtually every commercial CO2 capture plant in operation using this process. In the process, the first step is the removal of impurities from the flue gas, such as hydrocarbons and oxides of both nitrogen and sulfur (NOx and SOx). Next the purified gas is passed through an absorption column filled with the chemical scrubbing solvent. The solvent reacts with the carbon dioxide and selectively absorbs it from the gas stream. When CO2-rich solvent is heated, the carbon dioxide is released as a nearly pure gas.

    By Gasmet Technologies Oy based in Helsinki, FINLAND.

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    Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Energy (Power) Industry

    Wet scrubbers and Wet electrostatic precipitators for removal of sulfur dioxide and trioxide, ash particulate, NOx and mercury from coal fired boilers. Sulfur dioxide, NOx and particulate from oil fired boilers and diesel engines. Ash particulate from Biomass boilers including Bagasse type. Complete scrubber systems for sulfur dioxide removal using lime, limestone to gypsum quality and all sodium, magnesium and potassium chemistry scrubbing solutions including ammonia for ammonium sulfate production. For gypsum production, complete air sparging oxidation systems are incorporated in the scrubbers along with all needed auxiliary equipment. Waste Heat Recovery options with Q-Sense direct contact heat exchanger technology.  

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

  • PLAZKAT systems for treatment of emissions from ferrous and non-ferrous metal working industries

    Metal casting and heat treatment processes are associated with harmful gaseous emissions into the atmosphere which include substances such as carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, oil vapors and sulfur dioxide.

    By Plasma Air Systems Corporation based in Harju Maakond, ESTONIA.

  • Odor Scrubbers Applications with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution. Step 1: H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O Step 2: 4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when used in place of bleach, one gallon 50% H2O2 for every 10 gallons of 15% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). This generally translates into a break-even cost scenario. Sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) is added to maintain a pH of 10.0 - 10.5 in the scrubbing solution. There is also in practice a process which uses H2O2 in series with bleach to scrub composting odors. This process relies on a series of three packed tower scrubbers: the first is a pH neutral water wash (to remove ammonia and amine odors); the second uses a conventional caustic/bleach solution in which the bleach is purposely overdosed (to oxidize the complex organic sulfur odors); and the third uses a caustic/H2O2 solution (to remove the unreacted chlorine vapors carried over from the second stage). H2O2 + HOCl → HCl + H2O + O2 Typical dose ratios are 0.5 parts H2O2 per part hypochlorite (OCl-), with sufficient caustic soda (NaOH) added to maintain a pH of 8.5 in the scrubbing solution.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

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