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sulfur oxide control Applications

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    EDXRF spectrometers for ultra low sulfur

    Compliance with the ASTM method at low concentrations sulfur. Sulfur is a major element of importance because it forms sulfuric acid in the atmosphere when burned and has harmful impact on the human health and on the environment. In the mid-2000`s, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began a program to greatly reduce the amount of Sulfur in petroleum products. The current allowable sulfur limit in vehicle fuel is 15 ppm (parts per million). To reduce the pollution coming from vessels the international maritime Organization (IMO) established new limits on emission of sulfur oxides. In Emission Controlled Areas the sulfur limit will be 0.1 % starting 2015. The continued strategy by EPA and IMO to reduce the amount of sulfur in petroleum products put a great demand on sulfur monitoring in fuel and oil products.

    By Xenemetrix Ltd. based in Migdal Haemek, ISRAEL.

  • Sulfide Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)

    Sulfide Odor Control Sulfide is found throughout the environment as a result of both natural and industrial processes. Most sulfide found in nature was produced biologically (under anaerobic conditions) and occurs as free hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - characterized by its rotten egg odor. We are most likely to encounter biogenic H2S in sour groundwaters, swamps and marshes, natural gas deposits, and sewage collection/treatment systems. Manmade sources of H2S typically occur as a result of natural materials containing sulfur (e.g., coal, gas and oil) being refined into industrial products. For a variety of reasons - aesthetics (odor control), health (toxicity), ecological (oxygen depletion in receiving waters), and economic (corrosion of equipment and infrastructure) - sulfide laden wastewaters must be handled carefully and remediated before they can be released to the environment. Typical discharge limits for sulfide are < 1 mg/L. Sulfide Treatment Alternatives There are dozens of alternatives for treating sulfide laden waters, ranging from simple air stripping (for the low levels present in groundwaters) to elaborate sulfur recovery plants (used to treat several tons per day at refineries and coal burning power plants). There are processes based on biology (using compost filters, scrubbing media, or inhibition/disinfection), chemistry (oxidation, precipitation, absorption, and combination), and physics (adsorption, volatilization, and incineration). Each process occupies a niche which is often defined by the scale and continuity of treatment, whether the sulfide is in solution or is a gas, the concentration of sulfide involved, and the disposition of the sulfide containing medium. However, for reasons relating to convenience and flexibility, chemical oxidation (using hydrogen peroxide) continues to grow in its scope of application. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While other peroxygens such as permonosulfuric (Caro’s) acid, peracetic acid, and persulfates will oxidize sulfide, their use for this application is overkill. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is considerably simpler and more cost-effective. H2O2 may control sulfides in two ways, depending on the application: Prevention - by providing dissolved oxygen which inhibits the septic conditions which lead to biological sulfide formation; and Destruction - by oxidizing sulfide to elemental sulfur or sulfate ion.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Air pollution control (APC) equipments for waste incineration

    Waste incineration is a complex area. The mix of waste, moisture content, temperature of the waste, surrounding air and a variety of other factors interact and affect which residues are formed. Combustion entails often a gas consisting of heavy metals, sulfur oxides, chlorides, dioxins, etc. It is extremely important with a proper handling of the gas and the task often requires a mixture of wet and semi-dry treatment. EnviBAT offers equipment that brings particle levels down to extremely low levels, which guarantees a total separation of dioxins and wet purification that separates contaminants found in the gas phase.

    By Envibat AB based in Skellefteå, SWEDEN.

  • Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Agricultural Industry

    Particulate and gaseous control on Bagasse and Biomass fueled boilers. Sugar scrubbing and recovery. Removal of sulfur dioxide and ethylene oxide from fruit and vegetable ripening and drying rooms.

    By Bionomic Industries Inc. based in Mahwah, NEW JERSEY (USA).

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