The process control of a sulphuric acid plant needs good and reliable detection of gas phase sulphur dioxide (SO2). To measure SO2 is a challenge due to the corrosive environment and high concentration of SO2. Several places in the process needs to be monitored and to transport the sample gas is difficult. A large dynamic range is needed as the SO2 concentration can vary between 15% volume and a few mg/m3. Most systems installed need a lot of maintenance, sometimes as often as every day.
The Opsis monitoring solution for mining and smelting applications is based on either DOAS or laser diode technique. Opsis non-contact monitoring solutions are very well suited for applications in the Mining and Smelting Industries, as the flue gas conditions often involves high temperatures and high dust concentrations. The on-line, open-path systems are used for monitoring HF, sulphur dioxide, SO3 and HCl in potrooms, in fence-line applications and in continuous emissions monitoring.
The Opsis monitoring solution in aluminium smelters is based on either DOAS or laser diode technique. The on-line, open-path systems are used for monitoring HF and sulphur dioxide in potrooms, in fence-line applications and in continuous emissions monitoring. Opsis has long experience of monitoring in aluminium smelters.
While land-based industry has been subject to strenuous emissions regulations over the past decades, air emissions from sea-going ships’ machinery has so far been largely unregulated. As a result, according to EU statistics, ships have become the single biggest source of sulphur dioxide (SO2) within the EU. The US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) reports similar findings, i.e., that the proportion of air pollutants released which can be attributed to the shipping industry is increasing. MARPOL Annex...
The consumption of scrubbing material in a scrubber is related to the mass flow of acid gases. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are the major acid gases in an incinerator. By measuring the mass flow of SO2 and HCl in the raw gas going into the scrubber, it is possible to calculate the required quantity of scrubbing material.
In recent years, new regulations have been introduced governing emissions from ships. With the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopting Annex VI of MARPOL designed to limit sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions, as well as introducing emission control areas (ECAs) to reduce emissions of those air pollutants further in designated sea areas, ship owners/operators can face hefty fines for failing to meet these new requirements on the “polluter pays” principle.
SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride ) or air is used as an insulation gas in circuit breakers . Excess moisture in these gases causes arcing, which can trip the circuit breaker and cut off power to the distribution network. More seriously, such arcing can lead to physical damage of equipment and, on occasion, death of plant operatives (please ask for our case study on circuit breakers).
New regulation forces ships to lower the emissions of SO2. Ships travelling in SECA areas has to either run on low sulphur fuel, or install SO2 scrubbers. To measure the SO2 emissions from a ship is not an easy task. OPSIS provides the Port Authorities with a unique measurement principle where the emissions from the ship is measured remotely. Light is passing the emissions and by analyzing the light, concentrations of SO2 can be measured.