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toxicity test Applications

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    Online Toxicity Monitoring

    By microLAN On-line Biomonitoring Systems based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.

  • Spectrophotometry for toxic waste industry

    By Buck Scientific Inc based in East Norwalk, CONNECTICUT (USA).

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    Oxygen monitoring from aerobic and anaerobic for toxicity test

    Toxicity of pure chemicals is assessed using respirometers by adding increasing concentrations to an active culture. The concentration at which oxygen uptake or gas production begins to decrease is known as the “threshold toxicant concentration.”

    By Respirometer Systems and Applications, LLC based in Springdale, ARKANSAS (USA).

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity reduction tests

    In industrial manufacturing companies, before a new process comes on-line, it is important to measure the toxicity of the effluent stream. This is especially the case for companies who treat their own waste. From the toxicity value (EC50) obtained, it may be a cost-effective solution to simply discharge the effluent to the treatment works at a slow and defined rate to minimise damage to the activated sludge. Following a period of acclimatisation it is often possible to increase feed rates to the plant and this can again be managed using the Strathtox Respirometer. An alternative approach is to undertake toxicity reduction procedures, such as neutralisation or acid hydrolysis, in pilot-scale laboratory studies. The Respiration or the Nitrification Inhibition Test may be used for this. In the future, toxicity reduction may be stipulated by local authority, water company or publicly-owned treatment works prior to giving discharge consents. Toxicity reduction may be evaluated using toxicity tests on activated sludge provided by the treatment works.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity testing

    If industrial wastewater entering a treatment works contains toxic components the rate of biodegradation will be inhibited or stop completely. This can result in failed consents and will certainly give rise to operational problems. Visible indications include deflocculation, bulking and the appearance of filamentous bacteria. Sometimes, there are no visible effects. When the sludge bacteria are inhibited, there is the possibility of toxicity carryover in the effluent that is discharged to receiving waters. With new environmental legislation being introduced, worldwide, to protect the natural environment, toxin discharge is now a serious concern for treatment plant managers.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity tracking

    If toxicity is identified in a mixed sewage entering a treatment works, the problem for the plant manager is to track and identify the source of the toxicity. This can be done by sampling the effluent stream at various points in its length. By working in a logical sequence back up the sewer network the number of samples can be minimised. This type of testing should be rigorously enforced for new product introduction by a waste producer, as well as sampling the effluents directly at source. The samples would be tested against the activated sludge of the receiving works, using the Respiration Inhibition Test or the Nitrification Inhibition Test.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in North Lanarkshire, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity based consents

    Water companies, water authorities or publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) need to have some knowledge of the composition of the wastes they it receive. In addition to testing for ammonia and BOD or COD levels, treatment works can license industrial discharges on the basis of concentrations of some of the known toxic compounds. However, it is recognised that very many non-regulated toxic materials still enter the treatment works and reduce the efficiency of biodegradation, and may cause toxic shock. The way is now open for more widespread use of direct toxicity tests as a basis for toxicity-based consents. Samples of the industrial effluent are collected at source, for testing on the actual bacteria of the receiving activated sludge. The tests used are the Respiration Inhibition Test and the Nitrification Inhibition Test. Note that this approach mirrors that of the regulators of discharges to receiving waters, who are now using direct toxicity tests (DTA) or whole effluent toxicity tests (WET tests) in order to protect the receiving environment.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    ph determination for soil testing

    Determination of the pH value provides information about the acid or base action of the soil solution. This in turn is enormously important for the nutrient supply and microbial activity of the soil. For example, many metals (trace elements) are considerably more mobile in acidic soils. If the soil pH values are very low, toxic levels can soon be reached and these can damage the roots of plants. On the other hand, excessively high pH values quickly lead to a shortage of trace elements because of immobilization.

    By Metrohm AG based in Herisau, SWITZERLAND.

  • Automation of molecular pathology

    Tumor markers found in blood, urine and body tissues can be used in diagnosing and treating cancer. Each tumor marker is indicative of a particular disease and thus can be used for the screening, monitoring and diagnosis of specific tumor types. In addition to being used in prognosis, these molecular markers help to predict the response, resistance and toxicity to therapy. For example, BCR-ABL gene sequence detection is used to diagnose chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphatic leukemia.

    By Aurora Biomed Inc. based in Vancouver, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

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    Measurement solution for accurate continuous formaldehyde measurement formaldehyde in emissions and ambient air applications

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the simplest aldehyde species and is present, or generated by, many sources (both natural and industrial). It is classed as a substance that is toxic and harmful to human health.

    By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Waste water treatment plants Air quality control by TRS MEDOR

    Context & Challenges Globally, the wastewater treatment is the first public health issue. Urban development leads to urbanization near waste water treatment plant and extension of sewerage network. These aspects induce to an augmentation of sulfur compounds (H2S, mercaptans and sulfides) which are very corrosive, odorant and toxic. To monitor this compounds online CHROMATOTEC® offers high meteorological solutions. At the entrance of the waste water plants, where the waste water arrives, strongly smelling and polluted air is captured and neutralised by a chemical cleaning process called ‘’Stripping’’. The correct amount of chemical products needed to neutralise the polluted air has to be calculated.

    By Chromatotec Group based in Val de Virvée, FRANCE.

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    Waste water treatment plants Personnel Safety & H2S filter management

    Context & Challenges Globally, the wastewater treatment is the first public health issue. Urban development leads to urbanization near waste water treatment plant and extension of sewerage network. These aspects induce to an augmentation of sulfur compounds (H2S, mercaptans and sulfides) which are very corrosive, odorant and toxic. To monitor this compounds online CHROMATOTEC® offers high meteorological solutions. As a result of the confinement of the waste water stations, toxic components such as H2S and Methylmercaptan increased. Safety of employees on such working sites has therefore become of major problem. To fight this hazardous pollution, air filtering systems have been installed. For the station managers, personal safety coupled with the need for constant air quality control and filter change has been a heavy task.

    By Chromatotec Group based in Val de Virvée, FRANCE.

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    Waste water treatment plants Screening area: stripping

    Context & Challenges Globally, the wastewater treatment is the first public health issue. Urban development leads to urbanization near waste water treatment plant and extension of sewerage network. These aspects induce to an augmentation of sulfur compounds (H2S, mercaptans and sulfides) which are very corrosive, odorant and toxic. To monitor this compounds online CHROMATOTEC® offers high meteorological solutions. To ensure the safety of operatives in the screening building/area of waste water treatment works an H2S analyzer has been installed in the main building to complement the protection provided by individual monitors. Chromatographic measurements show that other sulfurous compounds including Methylmercaptans are present in the air in addition to H2S.

    By Chromatotec Group based in Val de Virvée, FRANCE.

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    Environmental testing & compliance screening for energy/environmental sector

    Compliance screening and testing is often carried out during the manufacturing phase of a product, and all the way through its disposal or recycling process. It ensures that products and materials meet specific standards or comply with international and local directives or regulations. These standards and regulations are introduced to ensure the quality and safety of a product, and to minimise or eliminate its negative impact on the environment and people. Examples of products or materials tested are: electrical and electronic equipment (for compliance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive), waste oils, soil (soil remediation depending on contents of toxic metals), children’s products (for compliance with Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008), etc.

    By Oxford Instruments plc based in Abingdon, UNITED KINGDOM.

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    Seawater Biotoxicity monitoring to protect the coastal waters of Italy

    The recorded death of fish in the river that flows out of the industrial zone of Scarlino has created the need of the installation of a biological alarm system. The decision was made to work with an automatic system, iTOXcontrol created by microLAN-The Netherlands represented in Italy by Ecotox Lds, which uses marine bacteria. The system compares the values of the light emission from these organisms at the entrance and exit of the canal, generating alarms in the presence of toxic substances.

    By microLAN On-line Biomonitoring Systems based in Waalwijk, NETHERLANDS.

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    Testing Fume Hood Flow Dynamics using SF6 as a Tracer Gas

    A safe laboratory environment requires an effective method for clearing toxic material from fume hoods. Since all handling of toxic materials is completed in these hoods, it is critical to have a procedure to evaluate their operation to assure adequate protection for laboratory workers. The InfraRan Specific Vapor Analyzer, factory calibrated for SF6, is an ideal instrument for measuring fume hood efficiency in accordance with ASHRAE and other standards. Manufacturers identify the flow dynamics (factors that affect air flow in the hood and performance with air) using the ratings AM (as manufactured), AI (as installed), and AU (as used). A fume hood evaluation conducted under its operational environment is critical, as these tests will indicate any installation shortcomings as well as direct workers in proper laboratory hood techniques.

    By Spectro Scientific based in Chelmsford, MASSACHUSETTS (USA).

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