The US FDA and international regulatory agencies have set contamination levels for aflatoxins in animal feedstuffs. Since Aspergillus may infect commodities pre-harvest, during storage or during processing, monitoring for aflatoxins in associated agricultural
commodities at all stages of production is requisite. Field screening methods exist that are adequate to estimate contamination levels for aflatoxins. When additional confirmation or quantification is desired,
chromatographic laboratory analysis is often necessary. Preparation of matrix samples prior to chromatographic analysis typically requires
extraction and purification. Commonly, immunoaffinity columns (IAC), which employ a multi-step bind and elute mechanism to concentrate
and purify aflatoxins, are used to purify matrix samples for subsequent analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE), an alternate method which
may use interference removal, can also be employed.
Beverages, such as sodas and energy drinks, can include a number of polar ingredients, which are easily soluble in the water matrix of the drinks. These ingredients include sweeteners (sugars and sugar substitutes), caffeine, vitamin supplements, amino acids, organic acids, and plant extracts. Because the analytes are already in solution, there is no need for extensive sample preparation. Dilution followed by direct injection into an HPLC is typically suitable.
In this article we present two beverage applications using Ascentis Express HPLC columns. Ascentis Express columns offer faster HPLC on any system. One benefit is their ability to produce the resolution, efficiency, and speed on conventional HPLC systems that is associated with the use of sub-2 micron columns on a UHPLC system, without generating high backpressure. Column chemistries (RP-Amide and HILIC) were selected for this article based on their enhanced performance with polar compounds in comparison to C18.
Airborne aldehydes and ketones are collected by passing air through a cartridge containing 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH). Carbonyl compounds react with the DNPH to form hydrazones, which are immobilized on the cartridge. These compounds can be easily eluted from the cartridge with acetonitrile and analyzed by HPLC with UV detection. Traditionally, this analysis including the workup contains a series of manual steps, which can become time-consuming and could incur experimental error.
Automating the extraction of LpDNPH S10 cartridges and putting it in-line with the HPLC analysis will significantly reduce manual labor using this technique and this will improve reproducibility of the method by reducing potential experimental errors by the operator. The automation and unattended operation of the method leads to high throughput for determining airborne formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
A group of 30 compounds was selected, representing pesticides, acaricides, insecticides, and fungicides. These samples were analyzed using Supel™ QuE QuEChERS and an Ascentis® Express RP-Amide HPLC Column.
An application was developed to demonstrate increased pigment removal for the analysis of pesticides, using Supel™ QuE Z-Sep/C18 QuEChERS and an Ascentis® Express C18 HPLC Column. The improved cleanup can decrease column and instrument fouling, leading to extended LC column lifetime and reduced instrument downtime.
Herbicides are used throughout the world to combat the growth of unwanted plant life. These polar compounds are hydrophilic, so they may find their way into drinking water sources.
While gas chromatography has historically been the preferred technique for analysis of herbicides in water samples, the use of LC-MS/MS for this application is gaining acceptance. This is due to the power of MS/MS to provide detailed identification of multiple
analytes, but also in part due to the variety of HPLC stationary phases that are available. In particular, several HPLC phases are available that provide great retention and peak shapes for polar analytes, such as herbicides, even under mostly aqueous mobile phase conditions. The combination of these factors may possibly eliminate need for time-consuming sample preparation.
Caramel colorings are used as additives in a broad range of food and beverage products to impart a desired color, but have no nutritional or preservative function. Recently, the potential hazard to humans of
ammonia- and ammonia-sulfite-process caramel colorings was raised, because they contain the by-product 4-methylimidazole, which is a potential carcinogen.1 The methylimidazole compounds are difficult to analyze due to their polar nature and low molecular weight. Traditional reversed phase techniques are unsuccessful in retaining these small
polar compounds. Therefore, most HPLC methods utilize ion-exchange resins for analysis. Another common method involves GC analysis after the analytes first undergo a derivatization step.
The purpose of the work shown in this article was to develop a simple and fast analytical method to determine the levels of 2-methylimidazole and
4-methylimidazole in caramel colored carbonated beverages.
Mycotoxins are a diverse group comprised of hundreds of secondary metabolic products of various fungal species. Several show marked toxicity in humans. Contamination of the food supply with mycotoxins is increasingly prevalent, and can occur during growth, harvest, transportation, processing or storage. Techniques to reduce mycotoxin concentration after contamination are expensive, unreliable and sometimes reversible. Therefore, the removal of contaminated products from the food chain is a primary means of eliminating human exposure. The sensitive and accurate detection of very low levels of these compounds is critical to efforts to identify contaminated products. LC-MS/MS is a popular analytical technique for this purpose. This application explores using Ascentis® Express RP-Amide and Ascentis Express F5 HPLC columns to perform this analysis.