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vapor condensation Applications

  • Aerosol and particle technology for pressure & temperature industries

    The reproducibility of the devices has been approved by worldwide use. In order to avoid the condensation or vaporization of the particles during the particle measurement, the isothermal and isobaric particle generation and measurement is necessary.

    By Palas GmbH based in Karlsruhe, GERMANY.

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    Determination of the mercury concentration in naphtha

    Introduction

    The mercury concentration in crude oil and petroleum products can vary in a wide range of less than 0.1 ppb to dozens ppm. Direct mercury determination in crude oil and petroleum products at the range above 5 ppb is covered by ASTM D7622-10(2015) "Standard test method for total mercury in crude oil using combustion and direct cold vapor atomic absorption method with Zeeman background correction". Mercury determination in naphtha and light petroleum products (condensate, gasoline and diesel fuel) at a level below 5 ppb is a vital problem for the oil refining and petrochemical industry. Complex organic matrix impedes conventional quantitative analysis for mercury.

    By Lumex Instruments Group based in Mission, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).

  • Wet gas monitoring for refineries

    Thermal mass flow meters provide excellent measurement capabilities in dry gas flows. They have proven durability, accuracy, and repeatability. However, thermal flow meters are sensitive to liquid droplets in a wet gas stream. For a thermal flow meter to work accurately in a condensing gas environment, the probe must be placed far enough downstream so that the entrained water has condensed onto the pipe wall. In a very wet environment, any condensing liquid (commonly referred to as mist or fog) contacting the sensor probes causes a high reading due to the liquid vaporizing on the heated portion of the sensor. As a result of this deficiency, measurements with conventional thermal meters are largely ignored when moisture levels rise because there is no confidence that the measurements are true.

    By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).

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