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wastewater toxicity Applications

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity testing

    If industrial wastewater entering a treatment works contains toxic components the rate of biodegradation will be inhibited or stop completely. This can result in failed consents and will certainly give rise to operational problems. Visible indications include deflocculation, bulking and the appearance of filamentous bacteria. Sometimes, there are no visible effects. When the sludge bacteria are inhibited, there is the possibility of toxicity carryover in the effluent that is discharged to receiving waters. With new environmental legislation being introduced, worldwide, to protect the natural environment, toxin discharge is now a serious concern for treatment plant managers.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity tracking

    If toxicity is identified in a mixed sewage entering a treatment works, the problem for the plant manager is to track and identify the source of the toxicity. This can be done by sampling the effluent stream at various points in its length. By working in a logical sequence back up the sewer network the number of samples can be minimised. This type of testing should be rigorously enforced for new product introduction by a waste producer, as well as sampling the effluents directly at source. The samples would be tested against the activated sludge of the receiving works, using the Respiration Inhibition Test or the Nitrification Inhibition Test.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity reduction tests

    In industrial manufacturing companies, before a new process comes on-line, it is important to measure the toxicity of the effluent stream. This is especially the case for companies who treat their own waste. From the toxicity value (EC50) obtained, it may be a cost-effective solution to simply discharge the effluent to the treatment works at a slow and defined rate to minimise damage to the activated sludge. Following a period of acclimatisation it is often possible to increase feed rates to the plant and this can again be managed using the Strathtox Respirometer. An alternative approach is to undertake toxicity reduction procedures, such as neutralisation or acid hydrolysis, in pilot-scale laboratory studies. The Respiration or the Nitrification Inhibition Test may be used for this. In the future, toxicity reduction may be stipulated by local authority, water company or publicly-owned treatment works prior to giving discharge consents. Toxicity reduction may be evaluated using toxicity tests on activated sludge provided by the treatment works.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Waste water respirometry solutions for toxicity based consents

    Water companies, water authorities or publicly-owned treatment works (POTW) need to have some knowledge of the composition of the wastes they it receive. In addition to testing for ammonia and BOD or COD levels, treatment works can license industrial discharges on the basis of concentrations of some of the known toxic compounds. However, it is recognised that very many non-regulated toxic materials still enter the treatment works and reduce the efficiency of biodegradation, and may cause toxic shock. The way is now open for more widespread use of direct toxicity tests as a basis for toxicity-based consents. Samples of the industrial effluent are collected at source, for testing on the actual bacteria of the receiving activated sludge. The tests used are the Respiration Inhibition Test and the Nitrification Inhibition Test. Note that this approach mirrors that of the regulators of discharges to receiving waters, who are now using direct toxicity tests (DTA) or whole effluent toxicity tests (WET tests) in order to protect the receiving environment.

    By Strathkelvin Instruments Ltd. based in Motherwell, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • BOD and COD Removal

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been used to reduce the BOD and COD of industrial wastewaters for many years. While the cost of removing BOD / COD through chemical oxidation with hydrogen peroxide is typically greater than that through physical or biological means, there are nonetheless specific situations which justify the use of hydrogen peroxide. These include: Predigestion of wastewaters which contain moderate to high levels of compounds that are toxic, inhibitory, or recalcitrant to biological treatment (e.g., pesticides, plasticizers, resins, coolants, and dyestuffs); Pretreatment of high strength / low flow wastewaters – where biotreatment may not be practical – prior to discharge to a Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW);Enhanced separation of entrained organics by flotation and settling processes; and Supply of supplemental Dissolved Oxygen (DO) when biological treatment systems experience temporary overloads or equipment failure.

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Biological wastewater processes for petrochemical

    This wastewater typically contains a lower biochemical to chemical oxygen demand.  We determine biodegradability of each waste stream and the presence of toxic or inhibitory compounds. 

    By Biowater Technology based in Cumberland, RHODE ISLAND (USA).

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    Drinking water treatment

    Drinking water can be produced from any natural sources like groundwater, lakes and rivers (surface waters) or seawater. Drinking water standards are set by the World Health organisation or by the European Union. Drinking water must be free of suspended solids, microorganisms and toxic chemicals. Mineral concentration recommendation vary from country to country but most of the minerals have a maximum concentration recommended to ensure safe, equilibrated and pleasant water to drink.

    By Lenntech Water Treatment based in Delft, NETHERLANDS.

  • Wastewater treatment for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry

    The water from pharmaceutical companies can cause big troubles because of the high variability in their manufacturing processes. Depending on the kind of raw materials used, the effluents may even be toxic, hence why the most conflictive effluents have to be separated from the rest and not to be sent to the general treatment.

    By Aguambiente based in La Cistérniga, SPAIN.

  • Food & beverage wastewater treatment

    Food Industry wastewater (Meat, Milk, Canned fruits and vegetables, Beverages, etc) must be adequately treated to meet the discharge requirements of public sewers or channel, or reuse as irrigation water mainly. These industries wastewater has the following characteristics:

    • Large variations in flow and pollutant load during harvesting.
    • High suspended solids content.
    • High concentration of easily biodegradable organic matter.
    • Absence of toxics elements.
    • Adequate concentration of nutrients.

    By Sistema Azud, S.A. based in Alcantarilla, SPAIN.

  • Process Design

    Custom water and wastewater engineering, consulting and process design services to prevent air, land, water and environmental pollution. We rework systems as processes change and troubleshoot where necessary to bring systems into compliance. • High purity and process water • Biological nutrient removal • Solids treatment • Toxicity reduction • Industrial treatment • Advanced oxidation and alternative disinfection • Effluent reclamation and reuse • Land application systems • Natural treatment systems • Hydrogen sulfide and odor control • Decentralized treatment systems • Process optimization / operations assistance • Conceptual and strategic water planning

    By Yates Environmental Services based in Spokane, WASHINGTON (USA).

  • Monitoring of Algae in Drinking Water

    The UniLux in-situ fluorometer can be configured to detect a number of key parameters that are of importance to the Water Supply Industry. Primarily, the detection of Chlorophyll a in stored water systems, such as reservoirs, assists in the planning and informs decisions on water abstraction in relation to natural algae blooms that regularly occur throughout the year. As well as Chlorophyll a, these in-situ fluorometers can detect cyanobacterias, such as Phycocyanin and Phycoerythrin, which are often associated with algae groups of a toxic nature. Knowledge of concentrations of algae within the water can assist in determining the loading into water processing plants.

    These in-situ fluorometers are available as single parameter sensors (UniLux), or 3 channel sensors (TriLux).The CTG FastFlow fast repetition rate fluorometer provides information on the physiological state of algae it monitors. As well as providing detailed information on the growth rate of the algae (which can indicate the occurrence of a future algae bloom), it can immediately inform and alarm on toxins that have accidentally or deliberately been introduced into the water systems, as with the FastGuard system. The FastFlow differs from the FastGuard system in that it logs and displays detailed information on the state of the algae monitored for operational requirements.

    By Chelsea Technologies Group based in West Molesey, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Water intake protection monitoring for wastewater treatment industry

    Intake protection systems have been extensively installed to protect water treatment works, from ingress of polluted water and waste-water plants from toxic chemical loads. A suitable system typically comprises a suit of instrumentation, measuring key chemical, physical and indicator parameters dependant upon the identified risks, associated with the individual site activity or discharges from neighbouring industry.

    By Pollution & Process Monitoring Ltd based in Sevenoaks, UNITED KINGDOM.

  • Removal of organic compounds & toxity for wastewater treatment industry

    Federal and State regulatory agencies are increasingly requiring additional water quality testing and controls of the toxicity of discharges to receiving streams. Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) helps meet these pollution regulations. If organic chemicals have been identified as contributing to discharge toxicity, Calgon Carbon Corporation can work with facilities, and their engineering firms, to help meet stringent criteria associated with their NPDES permit. GAC can be employed as a cost-effective treatment for removal of organic compounds and toxicity. Even in situations where activated sludge treatment or powdered activated carbon is used for primary wastewater treatment, post treatment with GAC may be necessary to achieve toxicity compliance.

    By Calgon Carbon Corporation based in Pittsburgh, PENNSYLVANIA (USA).

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    Online Monitoring for the Drinking Water Industry

    AppliTek manufactures wet-chemical analyzers specifically designed for measuring on a continuous base the quality indices of drinking water, from raw water intake up to distribution level. Our systems have a small footprint, reduced reagent consumption and show excellent levels of detection in compliance with modern standards.

    On top of that, the delivery of safe water throughout the water cycle will raise the need for efficient monitoring systems detecting in real-time contaminations. `Broadband toxicity`, a non-specific parameter defined by AppliTek, is a prodigiously new and clean technology for safeguarding drinking water.

    By AppliTek NV based in Nazareth, BELGIUM.

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    Water Treatment Solutions for Nitrate Removal

    Most nitrogenous materials in natural waters tend to be converted to nitrate, so all sources of combined nitrogen, particularly organic nitrogen and ammonia, should be considered as potential nitrate sources. Primary sources of organic nitrates include human sewage and livestock manure, especially from feedlots. The primary inorganic nitrates which may contaminate drinking water are potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate both of which are widely used as fertilizers. According to the Toxics Release Inventory, releases to water and land totaled over 112 million pounds from 1991 through 1993.

    By Adedge Water Technologies, LLC based in Buford, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Automated solutions for the hazardous waste pit dredging

    Liquid Waste Technology’s electric and diesel driven dredges can improve safety for workers dredging hazardous materials. Our custom built dredges can be equipped with remote control to allow workers to stand up to 762 meters (2500 feet) away from the toxic area, increasing their safety. Liquid Waste Technology can build dredges with automated controls, that dredge entire ponds using PLC controls. This increases workers safety and productivity in hazardous dredging applications.

    By Liquid Waste Technology LLC (LWT LLC) based in New Richmond, WISCONSIN (USA).

  • Organic Micro-Pollutants Removal

    Organic Micro-pollutants are low and trace levels of synthetic organic substances released in water through human activity. They can be found in industrial, agricultural and domestic wastewater streams. Some of the most difficult-to-treat wastewater contains micro-pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), herbicides and pesticides, personal care products (PCPs), toxic chemicals, carcinogenic and endocrine disruptive compounds (EDCs), and emerging contaminants.

    By Arvia Technology based in Runcorn, UNITED KINGDOM.

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